Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA (Chapter 2 : Verse 52)

Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA (Chapter 2 : Verse 52) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्याय २ श्लोकः ५२) अष्टपञ्चाशत्तमः (५) सोपानः ।

There has been a long gap in doing this post. Anyway, –

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।

तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ।।२-५२।।

पदच्छेदैः

यदा ते मोह-कलिलं बुद्धिः व्यतितरिष्यति ।

तदा गन्ता असि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ।।२-५२।।

अन्वयः

यदा ते बुद्धिः मोह-कलिलं व्यतितरिष्यति, तदा श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च निर्वेदं गन्ता असि ।

केषाञ्चन शब्दानां विश्लेषणम्

१) मोह-कलिलम्  –

  • मोहस्य कलिलम् इति मोहकलिलम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) अथवा मोहः एव कलिलम् (कर्मधारयः) |
  • मोहस्य – मोह इति भाववाचकं पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • मोहः [मुह् घञ्] 1 Loss of consciousness, fainting, a swoon, insensibility; मोहेनान्तर्वरतनुरियं लक्ष्यते मुच्यमाना V.1.8; मोहादभूत् कष्टतरः प्रबोधः R.14.56; Ku.3.73; कतिचन पेतुरुपेत्य मोहमुद्राम् Śiva B.28.88. -2 Perplexity, delusion, embarrassment, confusion; यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव Bg.4.35. -3 Folly, ignorance, infatua- tion; तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम् R.1.2; Ś.7.25. -4 Error, mistake. -5 Wonder, astonishment. -6 Affliction, pain. -7 A magical art employed to con- found an enemy. -8 (In phil.) Delusion of mind which prevents one from discerning the truth (makes one believe in the reality of worldly objects and to be addicted to the gratification of sensual pleasures); महामोहं च मोहं च तमश्चाज्ञानवृत्तयः Bhāg.3.12.2. -9 Illu- sion of attachment or love; स्वगृहोद्यानगतेी$पि स्निग्धैः पापं विशङ्क्यते मोहात् Pt.2.171.
    • अत्र मुह् इति धातुः |
      • धातुपाठे – मुह वैचित्ये |
      • मुह् 4 P. (मुह्यति, मुग्ध or मूढ) 1 To faint, swoon, lose consciousness, become senseless; इहाहं द्रष्टुमाह्वं तां स्मरन्नेवं मुमोह सः Bk.6.21;1.2;15.16. -2 To be per- plexed or bewildered, to be disturbed in mind, be at a loss; आपत्स्वपि न मुह्यन्ति नराः पण्डितबुद्धयः H.1.145; Ki. 18.9. -3 To be foolish, stupid, or infatuated. -4 To fail. -5 To err, mistake. -Caus. (मोहयति-ते) 1 To stupefy, infatuate; मा मूमुहत् खलु भवन्तमनन्यजन्मा Māl.1. 32. -2 To confound, bewilder, perplex; व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे Bg.3.2;4.16. -3 To throw into confusion. -4 To cause to err or mistake.
  • कलिलम्
    • कलिल a. [कल-इलच्] Uṇ.1.54] 1 Covered with, full of. वराङ्गनागणकलिलं नृपात्मजः ततो बलाद् वनमभिनीयते स्म तत् Bu. Ch.3.65. -2 Mixed, blended with; तत एवाक्रन्दकलिलः कलकलः Mv.1. -3 Affected by, subject to; अकल्ककलिलः Śi.19.98. -4 Impervious, impenetrable. -5 Contaminated, defiled; तदा वृषध्वजद्वेषकलिलात्मा प्रजापतिः Bhāg.4.7.1, Śi.19.98. -6 Doubtful, suspicious; एतस्मात्कारणाच्छ्रेयः कलिलं प्रतिभाति मे Mb.12.287.11.
    • -लम् A large heap, confused mass; विशसि हृदय क्लेशकलिलम् Bh.3.34; confusion; यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति Bg.2.52.
    • अत्र कल् इति धातुः
      • धातुपाठे –
        • कल् चु. (१०) उ. – कल गतौ सङ्ख्याने च | [-क्षेपे]
        • कल् भ्वा. (१) आ. – कल शब्दसङ्ख्यानयोः |
      • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे –
        • कल् I. 1 Ā. (कलते, कलित) 1 To count. -2 To sound.
        • -II. 1 U. (कलयति-ते, कलित) 1 To hold, bear, carry, wield, have, put on; करालकरकन्दलीकलितशस्त्रजालैर्बलैः U.5.5; म्लेच्छनिवहनिधने कलयसि करवालम् Gīt.1; कलित- ललितवनमालः; हलं कलयते ibid.; कलय वलयश्रेणीं पाणौ पदे कुरु नूपुरौ 12; Mb.12.4.18. -2 (a) To count, reckon; कालः कलयतामहम् Bg.1.3. (b) To measure; सदा पान्थः पूषा गगनपरिमाणं कलयति Bh.2.114. -3 To assume, take, have, possess; कलयति हि हिमांशोर्निष्कलङ्कस्य लक्ष्मीम् Māl.1.22. Śi.4.36,9.59. -4 To know, understand, observe, take notice of, think of; कलयन्नपि सव्यथोवतस्थे Śi.9.83; कोपितं विरहखेदितचित्ता कान्तमेव कलयन्त्यनुनिन्ये 1.29; N.2.65
  • मोहकलिलम् = earful of sounds of mental confusions

२) व्यतितरिष्यति  – वि + अति + तॄ इति धातुः | तस्य लृटि (द्वितीयभविष्ये) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

    • धातुपाठे – तॄ भ्वा० (१) सेट् प० । तॄ प्लवनतरणयोः |
    • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे – तॄ 1 P. (तरति, ततार, अतारीत्, तरि-री-ष्यति, तीर्ण) 1 To cross over, cross; केनोडुपेन परलोकनदीं तरिष्ये Mk.8.23; स तीर्त्वा कपिशाम् R.4.38; Ms.4.77. -2 (a) To cross over, traverse (as a way); (अध्वानं) ततार ताराधिपखण्डधारी Ku.7.48; Me.19. (b) To sail across, navigate (as a river). -3 To float, swim; शिला तरिष्यत्युदके न पर्णम् Bk.12.77; Bṛi. S.8.14. -4 (a) To get over, surmount, overcome, overpower; धीरा हि तरन्त्यापदम् K.175; कृच्छ्रं महत्तीर्णः R.14.6; Pt.4.1; Bg.18.58; Ms.11.34. (b) To subdue, destroy, become master of. -5 To go
  • व्यतितरिष्यति = transcends

३) श्रोतव्यस्यश्रु-धातुतः तव्यत्-प्रत्ययेन कर्मणिविध्यर्थवाचकं विशेषणम् श्रोतव्य | प्रायः नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • धातुपाठे – श्रु श्रवणे
  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे – श्रु I. 1 P. (श्रवति) To go, move; cf. शु. -II. 5 P. (शृणोति, शुश्राव, अश्रौषीत्, श्रोष्यति, श्रोतुम्, श्रुत) 1 To hear, listen to, give ear to; शृणु मे सावशेषं वचः V.2; रुतानि चाश्रोषत षट्पदानाम् Bk.2.1; संदेशं मे तदनु जलद श्रोष्यसि श्रोत्रपेयम् Me.13.12. -2 To learn, study; द्वादशवर्षभिर्व्याकरणं श्रूयते Pt.1. -3 To be attentive, to obey. (इति श्रूयते ‘it is so heard’, i. e. is enjoined in the scriptures, such is the sacred precept.) -Caus. (श्रावयति-ते) To cause to hear, communicate, tell, relate, inform; श्रावितो$मात्यसंदेशं स्तन- कलशः Mu.4. -Desid. (शुश्रूषते) 1 To wish to hear. -2 To be attentive or obedient, obey; वाक्यं नैव करोति बान्धवजनो पत्नी न शुश्रूषते Pt.4.78 (where the word may have the next sense also). -3 To serve, wait or attend upon; शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् Ś.4.17; Ku.1.59; Ms.2.244.
  • श्रोतव्यस्य = of what is to be listened to, of what is to be learnt, of what is to be understood

४) श्रुतस्यश्रु-धातुतः क्त-प्रत्ययेन कर्मणिभूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् श्रुत | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • श्रुतस्य = of what is learnt in the past

५) निर्वेदं – निर् + वेदम्

  • निर्वेदम् is opposite of वेदम्
  • वेदम् is an abstract noun denoting a state or result of the action implicit in the verb धातु. Here the धातु is विद्. अत्र विद् इति धातुः –
  • धातुपाठे – विद् । चु० (१०) सेट् आ० । विद चेतनाख्याननिवासेषु |
    विद् । अ० (२) सेट् प० । विद ज्ञाने |
    विद् । दि० (४) अनिट् आ० । विद सत्तायाम् |
    विद् । तु० (६) सेट् उ० । विदॢ लाभे |
    विद् । रु० (७) अनिट् आ० । विद विचारणे |
  • विद् I. 2 P. (वेत्ति or वेद, विवेद-विदांचकार, अवेदीत्, वेत्स्यति, वेत्तुम्, विदित; desid. विविदिषति) 1 To know, understand, learn, find out, ascertain, discover; न चैतद्विमः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः Bg.2.5; तं मोहान्धः कथमय- ममुं वेत्तु देवं पुराणम् Ve.1.23;3.39; Ś.5.27; R.3.43; Bg.4.34;18.1. -2 To feel, experience; परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्ति पुरुषः Mu.3.4. -3 To look upon, regard, consider, know or take to be; य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारम् Bg.2. 19; विद्धि व्याधिव्यालग्रस्तं लोकं शोकहतं च समस्तम् Moha M.5; Bg.2.17; Ms.1.33; Ku.6.3. -Caus. (वेदयति-ते) 1 To make known, communicate, inform, apprise, tell.
  • निर्वेदम् = state of being unconcerned, In शाङ्करभाष्यम् this word निर्वेदम् has been interpreted as वैराग्यम्, which also is state of being unconcerned.

६) गन्ता – गम्-धातुतः तृच्-प्रत्ययेन कर्तृवाचकं विशेषणम् गन्तृ | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • धातुपाठे – गम् – भ्वा० (१) अनिट् प० । गमॢ-[गतौ]
  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे – 1 P. (गच्छति, जगाम, अगमत्, गमिष्यति, गन्तुम्, गत desid.; जिगमिषति, जिगांसते Ātm.; freq. जङ्गम्यते; जङ्गमीति or जङ्गन्ति) 1 To go, move in general; गच्छत्वार्या पुनर्दर्शनाय V.5; गच्छति पुरः शरीरं धावति पश्चादसंस्तुतं चेतः Ś.1.33; क्वाधुना गम्यते ‘where art thou going’. -2 To depart, go forth, go away, set forth or out; उत्क्षिप्यैनां ज्योतिरेकं जगाम Ś.5.3. -3 To go to, reach, resort to, arrive at, approach; यदगम्यो$पि गम्यते Pt.1.7; एनो गच्छति कर्तारम् Ms.8.19 the sin goes to (recoils on) the doer; 4.199; so धरणिं मूर्ध्ना गम् &c. -4 To pass, pass away, elapse (as time); दिनेषु गच्छत्सु R.3.8 as days rolled on, in course of time; Me.85; काव्यशास्त्रविनोदेन कालो गच्छति धीमताम् H.1.1; गच्छता कालेन in the long run. -5 To go to the state or condition of, become, undergo, suffer, partake of &c. (usually joined with nouns ending in. -ता, -त्व &c, or any noun in the acc.); गमिष्या- म्युपहास्यताम् R.1.3; पश्चादुमाख्यां सुमुखी जगाम Ku.1.26 went by or received the name of Umā; so तृप्तिं गच्छति becomes satisfied; विषादं गतः became dejected; कोपं न गच्छति does not become angry; आनृण्यं गतः became released from debt; मनसा गम् to think of, remember; Ku.2.63; वृषेण गच्छतः riding a bull; Ku.5.8. -6 To cohabit, have sexual intercourse with; गुरोः सुतां … यो गच्छति पुमान् Pt.2.17; Y.1.8. -Caus. (गमयति-ते) 1 To cause to go, lead or reduce to (as a state); गमितः गतिम् Ku.4.24; Bh.3.38; Ki.2.7. -2 To spend, pass (as time). -3 To make clear, explain, expound. -4 To signify, denote, convey an idea or sense of; द्वौ नञौ प्रकृतार्थ गमयतः ‘two negatives make one affirma- tive’. -5 To send to. -6 To bring to a place (acc.). -7 To impart, grant, bestow. -8 To intend, mean.
  • गन्ता = One who goes, one who reaches or attains (… a state, status, position, etc.)

७) असि – अस् इति धातुः | तस्य लटि (वर्तमानकाले) मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • धातुपाठे – अस् । भ्वा० सेट् उ० । अस गतिदीप्त्यादानेषु १. १०२९ ॥
    अस् । अ० सेट् प० । अस भुवि २. ६० ॥
    अस् । दि० सेट् प० । असु क्षेपने ४
  • आपटे-महाभागस्य शब्दकोशे – अस् – I. 2 P. [अस्ति, आसीत्, अस्तु, स्यात्; defective in non-conjugational tenses, its forms being made up from the root भू.] 1 To be, live, exist (showing mere existence); नासदासीन्नो सदासीत् Rv.1.129.1; आत्मा वा इदमेक एवाग्र आसीत् Ait. Up.1.1. श्रुतिद्वैधं तु यत्र स्यात् Ms.2.14; शपथे नास्ति पातकम् 8.112; न त्वेवाहं जातु नासम् Bg.2.12; आसीद्राजा नलो नाम Nala. 1.1; Ms.5.79; न अस् not to be, to be lost, disappear, perish, नायमस्तीति दुःखार्ता Nala.7.16; अस्ति भोक्तुम् Sk. it has to be eaten; (for other uses of अस्ति see अस्ति s. v.). -2 To be (used as a copula or verb of incomplete predication, being followed by a noun or adjective or adverb; or some other equivalent); भक्तो$सि मे सखा च Bg.4.3; धार्मिके सति राजनि Ms.11.11; आचार्ये संस्थिते सति 5.8; so एवमेव स्यात्, तूष्णीमासीत् &c. -3 To belong to, be in the possession of (expressed in English by have), with gen. of possessor; यन्ममास्ति हरस्व तत् Pt.4.76; यस्य नास्ति स्वयं प्रज्ञा 5.7; न हि तस्यास्ति किंचित् स्वम् Ms.8.417; नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य Bg.2.66. -4 To fall to the share of, to happen to or befall anyone (with gen.); यदिच्छामि ते तदस्तु Ś.4. तस्य प्रेत्य फलं नास्ति Ms.3.139 he cannot enjoy or get. -5 To arise, spring out, occur; आसीच्च मम मनसि K.142 (this) occurred to my mind. -6 To become; तां दृष्ट्वा दशविस्तारामासं विंशतियोजनः Rām.; also शुक्लीस्यात् राजसात् स्यात् &c. Sk. -7 To lead or tend to, turn out or prove to be (with dat.); स स्थाणुः स्थिरभक्ति- योगसुलभो निःश्रेयसायास्तु वः V.1.1; संगतं श्रीसरस्वत्योर्भूतये$स्तु सदा सताम् 5.24; oft. with dat. alone without अस्; यतस्तौ स्वल्पदुःखाय Pt.1. -8 To suffice (with dat.); सा तेषां पावनाय स्यात् Ms.11.85; अन्यैर्नृपालैः परिदीयमानं शाकाय वा स्याल्लवणाय वा स्यात् Jagannātha. -9 To stay, reside, dwell, live हा पितः क्वासि हे सुभ्रु Bk.6.11. -1 To take place, happen. -11 To be in a particular relation, to be affected (with loc.); किं नु खलु यथा वयमस्यामेवमियम- प्यस्मान् प्रति स्यात् Ś.1. अस्तु well, let it be; एवमस्तु, तथास्तु so be it, amen. The form आस joined to roots in forming their periphrastic perfect is sometimes separated from the root and used by itself; तं पातयां प्रथममास पपात पश्चात् R.9.61,16.86. [cf. L. est and Gr. esti. with अस्ति; esse; Zend. āsti; Pers. hast, ast] With अति to be over, excel, surpass. -अनु to be at hand; reach. -अपि (with loc. or an adv. of place) 1 to be in any- thing. -2 to belong to, be closely connected with. -अभि 1 to belong to, to fall to one’s share; यन्मममाभि- ष्यात् Sk. -2 to be over. -3 to excel, surpass. -4 to domineer or to tyrannize over, rule over. -आविस् to arise, spring up, be visible; आचार्यकं विजयि मान्मथ- माविरासीत् Māl.1.26. -उप to be near to or in. -परि 1 to be in the way. -2 to surpass. -3 to pass or spend (time). -4 to pervade. -प्र 1 to be in front of. -2 to be in extraordinary degree, to preponderate, excel, surpass. -प्रति 1 to be equal to, be a match for. -2 to rival, emulate, vie with. -3 to be a repre- sentative of, stand in place of. -प्रादुस् to appear, spring up; प्रादुरासीत्तमोनुदः Ms.1.6; R.11.15. -व्यति (Atm. व्यतिहे, व्यतिसे; व्यतिस्ते) to excel, surpass, be above or superior to, out-weigh; अन्यो व्यतिस्ते तु ममापि धर्मः Bk.2.35. -अस् II.4. P. (अस्यति, आस, आस्थत्, असितुम्, अस्त) 1 To throw, cast, hurl, discharge, shoot (with loc. of the mark); हस्ते बिभर्ष्यस्तवे Śvet. Up.3.6; तस्मिन्नास्थदिषीकास्त्रम् R.12.23; Bk.15.91, 14.77; sometimes with dat. or gen. दस्यवे हेतिमस्य Rv.1.13.3. -2 To drive away, remove. -3 To frighten or scare away. -4 To throw or take away, let go, leave, give up; as in अस्तमान, अस्तशोक, अस्तकोप see अस्त. -5 To fight with; युयोध बलिरिन्द्रेण तारकेण गुहो$- स्यत Bhāg.8.1.28. -With अति to shoot beyond or at, overpower (with arrows); अत्यस्त having shot beyond, having surpassed or excelled; joined in acc. (Tat. comp.; P.II.1.24.) -अभिप्र to throw over or upon, hurl at. -परिनि to stretch. -अस् III. 1 U (असति-ते, असित). 1 To go. -2 To take or receive, seize. -3 To shine (The examples usually cited to illustrate this sense are:- निष्प्रभश्च प्रभूरास भूभृताम् R.11.81; तेनास लोकः पितृमान् विनेत्रा 14.23; लावण्य उत्पाद्य इवास यत्नः Ku.1.35. But the sense of दिदीपे or ‘shone’ is far-fetched, though Vāmana is disposed to take it. It seems preferable to regard आस in these instances as equivalent to बभूव, either taking it, as Śākaṭāyana does, as an indeclinable तिडन्तप्रति- रूपकमव्ययम्, or considering it, as Vallabha does, as an ungrammatical form used against the rules of gram- mar, प्रामादिकः प्रयोगः; see Malli. on Ku.1.35).

८) शाङ्करभाष्ये गन्तासि = प्राप्स्यसि You will attain.

अन्वयार्थः Overall meaning –

यदा = when

ते बुद्धिः = your intellect, your mind

मोह-कलिलं = earful of sounds of mental confusions

व्यतितरिष्यति = will transcend

तदा = then

श्रोतव्यस्य = of what is to be listened to, of what is to be learnt, of what is to be understood

श्रुतस्य च = and  of what is learnt in the past

निर्वेदं = state of being unconcerned

गन्ता असि = you will attain.

By paraphrasing –

When your intellect, your mind will transcend earful of sounds of mental confusions, then you will attain state of being unconcerned of what is to be listened to, of what is to be learnt, of what is to be understood and of what is learnt in the past.

टिप्पण्यः Notes –

1) “Being unconcerned of what is learnt in the past” actually requires “unlearning”. I get to recall the instance when I taught to my grandson first, the geometrical construction of bisecting a line-segment by drawing the perpendicular bisector. Next I taught him dividing a line-segment into any number of equal parts (by using the theory of similar triangles). Very promptly my grandson asked, why not use the latter method also for bisecting. Gosh ! He made me unlearn ! It was unwarranted notion ingrained in my mind that bisection by perpendicular bisector and more divisions by similar triangles. Textbooks on geometry, must be all over the world follow this notion. Aren’t there unwarranted notions ingrained in our mind ? Aren’t ways of the mind subtle ? Yes, we must unlearn unwarranted notions. First of all we must realise that there are unwarranted notions in our mind.

2) By his learning of the past, also by his mind getting habituated to a notion, Arjuna had it ingrained in his mind that द्रोणाचार्य and भीष्माचार्य were persons to be respected. He had to unlearn that, because, that cannot be so, when they are in the opposite camp in the war.

3) The most important word in this श्लोक appeals to be मोहकलिलम्. The धातु from which word मोह is derived is मुह्. This धातु itself is interesting, because it has two past passive participles मुग्ध and मूढ. Do not these participles themselves bring forth, that मोहकलिलम् can be just मुग्धता or can be as serious as मूढता.

4) When detailing the word निर्वेदम्, it was noted that निर्वेदम् is opposite of वेदम् and that वेदम् is an abstract noun. No such noun as वेदम् is however found in the dictionary. But, in as much as it is used here in गीता, may be, grammarians can explain its derivation.

5) The अन्वय of this श्लोक is a complex sentence having two clauses, (1) यदा ते बुद्धिः मोह-कलिलं व्यतितरिष्यति adverbial sub-clause and (2) तदा श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च निर्वेदं गन्ता असि the main clause. The verb व्यतितरिष्यति of the subclause is in future tense. Yet verb असि in the main clause is in present tense ! Is it grammatically correct ? This is however in the manner of saying “when such and such thing will happen, such and such result is certain.” So when one wants to speak of certainty of a result, provided a stated condition will be fulfilled, it becomes good to use the present tense in the main clause, right ?

6) Giving certainty is giving assurance. In this second अध्याय of गीता, श्रीकृष्णभगवान् seems to have employed all four techniques साम-दाम-दंड-भेद of challenging an adversity or challenging an adverse person. Can we call this one, of giving assurance of a positive result, as सामनीति ?

7) The condition यदा ते बुद्धिः मोह-कलिलं व्यतितरिष्यति, is also quite forceful, especially the verb व्यतितरिष्यति. It wants मोह-कलिलं to be so transcended, that it will not return. People often seem to question, whether it was necessary for गीतोपदेश to have been so long as of 700 श्लोक-s. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् definitely wanted that the मोह-कलिलं must go away and also wanted it to get so removed that it will not return. By this token गीतोपदेश is an example how a psychiatrist should treat the patient ! And on the battlefield there was no option of a number of sessions with the patient. The option then was of whatever number of अध्याय-s were needed, until Arjuna himself assuredly said, नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा, स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः, करिष्ये वचनं तव (१८-७३). Treatment of an unsettled mind is complete, only when the patient himself gives such statement of assurance. In such instances, it is not the doctor’s certificate, but the patient’s assurance, which is important, right ?

शुभमस्तु |

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