Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 55)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 55)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५५)


प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |

आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ||२-५५||

पदच्छेदैः –

प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |

आत्मनि एव आत्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञः तदा उच्यते ||२-५५||

Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –

(1) The अन्वय should be –

पार्थ, यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च) तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते |

(2) As noted, the sentence has three clauses –

  1. यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति
  2. (यदा) आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च)
  3. तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते

(3) The sub-clauses (1) and (2) are not one after another. If there was to be any serial order between the actions प्रजहाति and तुष्टः वर्तते, then one would have employed ल्यबन्त प्रहाय of the first action प्रजहाति. Since no such ल्यबन्त प्रहाय is employed, both actions, rather, results of both actions have to happen together and stay.

(4) “and stay” is important. Then only the state of mind प्रज्ञा can be called as स्थित. The deciphering of the compound word स्थितप्रज्ञः should be स्थिता प्रज्ञा यस्य सः

  • (4-1) In physics, equilibrium is stated to be of three types – unstable, stable and uniform. Stable equilibrium is not unwavering. In stable equilibrium the body may waver, but will retrieve to its state of equilibrium. In uniform equilibrium, the body will not get disturbed at all. Its centre of gravity is firmly within its base.
  • (4-2) It seems that the difference between stable and uniform equilibrium states can be understood by thinking of two words निश्चल and अचल. The synonym for a mountain is not निश्चल, it is अचल.

(5) The concept of “centre of gravity firmly within its base”, there again the part “within its base” seems to explain the locative case सप्तमी विभक्ति used for the word आत्मनि.

(6) And the word तुष्टः seems to connote firm gravitational centre, of the mind. It is well-known that mind is fickle मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् (गीता ६-२६) It has to attain gravity. That can happen only by casting off प्रहाय, what all desires would come to mind मनोगतान् कामान्. Actually मनोगतान् means ‘what have come to mind’, not ‘what would come to mind’. Once ‘what have come to mind’ are banished, the doors of the mind are to be shut off. No more काम-s should have any access at all. So the verb प्रजहाति is to be understood not only to mean ‘casting off’, but also to include ‘shutting the doors forever’. Hence the prefix प्र. It is well said, उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते | Yes उपसर्ग has such बल to include an extended meaning.

(7) Who has to effect such banishing, closing the doors and bringing uniform equilibrium, all this unto the most challenging entity, the mind ? आत्मना एव by oneself !

(8) The word कामः has etymology as [कम्-घञ्]

  • कम् 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त) 1 To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; कन्ये कामयमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1. -2 To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्क- ष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82. -3 To have intercourse with; त्वं च मा वरुण कामयासे Rv.1.124.5. -4 To value highly.
  • धातुपाठे – कम् कान्तौ
    • कान्तिः [कम् भावे क्तिन्] 1 Loveliness, beauty, Me. 15; अक्लिष्टकान्ति Ś.5.19. -2 Brightness, lustre, brilliance; Me.84. -3 Personal decoration or embellishment. -4 Wish, desire. -5 (In Rhet.) Beauty enhanced by love; (S. D. thus distinguishes कान्ति from शोभा and दीप्तिः — रूपयौवनलालित्यं भोगाद्यैरङ्गभूषणम् । शोभा प्रोक्ता सैव कान्ति- र्मन्मथाप्यायिता द्युतिः । कान्तिरेवातिविस्तीर्णा दाप्तिरित्यभिधीयते 13, 131).
  • कामः hence seems to mean whatever can entice the mind. Even thoughts can entice the mind and keep it engaged and engrossed.
  • In the clause यदा सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति, there is also the adjective सर्वान्. To banish सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् would then mean getting the mind to become totally devoid of any thoughts also. Thoughts are like waves. The ocean of the mind should have no waves, neither on the surface nor beneath the surface.
  • In योगसूत्राणि by पातञ्जलिमुनि there is this सूत्रम् – निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ।। १.४७ ।। which speaks of निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् expertise or capability at being निर्विचार i.e. being totally devoid of any thoughts. This सूत्रम् mentions प्रसादः benefit or result of such निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् as अध्यात्मप्रसादः a spiritual exaltation.

(9) The passive voice of the verb उच्यते is important.

  • Transformation of सः स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते to active voice, can be जनः तं स्थितप्रज्ञं वक्ति
  • The subject in the active voice जनः can raise a query ‘which जनः ?’
  • What is actually implied is ‘any जनः any time, anywhere’.
  • When a statement is to be stated with omnipotence inbuilt, it is best made non-subjective or non-subject-specific. And the best way to so make it, is to use passive voice.
  • That could be the logic for Sanskrit providing change of voice even for intransitive verbs !
  • Hail Sanskrit grammar ! Hail Sanskrit ! Hail श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता !!!

शुभमस्तु !



Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 54)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 54)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५४)

अर्जुन उवाच ।
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २- ५४॥

पदच्छेदैः –

अर्जुनः उवाच ।
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किम् आसीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २- ५४॥

Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –

(1) The most common अन्वय that comes to mind is – अर्जुनः उवाच, “केशव, स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा ? स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत ? (स्थितधीः) किम् आसीत (स्थितधीः) किं व्रजेत ?

  • Three words here स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः sound to be synonymous. It is my contention, however, that in गीता no word is superfluous. So, if I have to think that each of these words is significant and none of these words is just a synonym of another, then I need to deliberate accordingly.
  • If the three words are not just synonyms, then the अन्वय can as well be अर्जुनः उवाच, “केशव, स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा ? समाधिस्थस्य (का भाषा ?) स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत ? (स्थितधीः) किम् आसीत (स्थितधीः) किम् व्रजेत ?
  • So by this optional अन्वय, there are five questions asked by Arjuna, not four.

(2) Answers of श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in further verses need to be studied in this light, whether the three words स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः are taken as synonymous or as each having a significant meaning of its own.

(3) Since we shall come to the further verses only later, In the context of this verse on hand, we can devote some deliberations of our own also.

  • All three words are compound words and all have one component word derived धातु from स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ) which is detailed in Apte’s dictionary as below –
    • स्था 1 P. (Ātm. also in certain senses; तिष्ठति- ते, तस्थौ, तस्थे, अस्थात्-अस्थित, स्थास्यति-ते, स्थातुं, स्थित; pass. स्थीयते; the स् of this root is changed to ष् after a preposition ending in इ or उ) 1 To stand; अयं स ते तिष्ठति संगमोत्सुकः Ś.3.13; चलत्येकेन पादेन तिष्ठत्येकेन बुद्धिमान् Subhāṣ -2 To stay, abide, dwell, live; ग्रामे or गृहे तिष्ठति -3 To remain, be left; यावदेकानुदिष्टस्य गन्धो लेपश्च तिष्ठति. Ms.4.111; एको गङ्गदत्तस्तिष्ठति Pt.4. -2 To delay, wait; किमिति स्थीयते Ś.2. -5 To stop, cease, desist, stand still; तिष्ठत्येष क्षणमधिपतिर्ज्योतिषां व्योममध्ये V.2.1. -6 To be kept aside; तिष्ठतु तावत् पत्रलेखागमनवृत्तान्तः K. ‘never mind the account of’ &c. -7 To be, exist, be in any state or position; often with participles; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; व्याप्य स्थितं रोदसी V.1.1; या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वं Ś.1.1; कालं नयमाना तिष्ठति Pt.1; Ms.7.8. -8 To abide by, conform to, obey (with loc.); शासने तिष्ठ भर्तुः V.5. 17. R.11.65. -9 To be restrained; यदि ते तु न तिष्ठेयुरुपायैः प्रथमैस्त्रिभिः Ms.7.18. -1 To be at hand, be obtainable; न विप्रं स्वेषु तिष्ठत्सु मृतं शूद्रेण नाययेत् Ms.5.14. -11 To live, breathe; आः क एष मयि स्थिते चन्द्रगुप्तमभिभवितुमिच्छति Mu.1. -12 To stand by or near, stand at one’s side, help; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे शत्रुसंकटे (राष्ट्रविप्लवे) । राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ H.1.71 (v. l.). -13 To rest or depend on; जहातु नैनं कथमर्थसिद्धिः संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -14 To do, perform, occupy oneself with; न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नोपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् Ms.2.13. -15 (Ātm.) To resort or go to (as an umpire), be guided by the advice of; संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -16 (Ātm.) To offer oneself to (for sexual embrace), stand as a prostitute (with dat.); गोपी स्मरात् कृष्णाय तिष्ठते Sk. on P.I.4.34.
  • (3-1) The word स्थितप्रज्ञ = स्थिता प्रज्ञा यस्य सः स्थितप्रज्ञः (बहुव्रीहिः) meaning one, whose प्रज्ञा has attained steadfastness.
    • But what is प्रज्ञा ? The धातु is ज्ञा – क्र्यादि (९) अनिट् प० । ज्ञा अवबोधने |, meaning ‘to realize’, ‘to understand’, primarily by sense-organs. Rather, प्रज्ञा is what gist settles down from what all is realized by sense-organs. In Apte’s dictionary
      • प्रज्ञा 1 Intelligence, understanding, intellect, wisdom; आकारसदृशप्रज्ञः प्रज्ञया सदृशागमः R.1.15; नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता Bg.2.57; शस्त्रं निहन्ति पुरुषस्य शरीरमेकं प्रज्ञा कुलं च विभवं यशश्च हन्ति ॥ Subhāṣ. -2 Discernment, discrimination, judgment; इयं निष्ठा बहुविधा प्रज्ञया त्वध्यवस्यति Mb.14.3.24. -3 Device or design. -4 A wise or learned woman. -5 Longing for (वासना); impression (संस्कार); तं विद्याकर्मणि समन्वारभेते पूर्वप्रज्ञा च Bṛi. Up.4.4.2. -6 N. of the goddess Sarasvatī. -7 A particular Śakti or energy. -8 A true or transcendental wisdom; Buddha.
    • Hence स्थितप्रज्ञ is one, who is not disturbed by whatever is realized by sense-organs. So स्थितप्रज्ञ = प्रज्ञासु (सु)स्थितः
    • Note, what are realized by sense-organs are external instincts.
  • (3-2) समाधिस्थः = समाधौ तिष्ठति (स्थ = तिष्ठति) इति समाधिस्थः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) meaning, one, who stays in समाधि. But what is समाधि ?
    • समाधिः can be deciphered either
      • from सम् + आ + धि meaning state of comprehensive and also focused intellect, state of deep meditation
      • समा धीः (यस्यां स्थितौ) सा समाधिः meaning equanimity of intellect, equanimity towards all dualities – sorrows or happiness, gains or losses, successes or failures as mentioned earlier in सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ (2-38)
    • By two options as above समाधिस्थः would mean either
      • one, who is in deep meditation or
      • one, who has become equanimous towards all dualities.
    • In Apte’s dictionary – समाधिः 1 Collecting, composing, concentrating (as mind). -2 Profound or abstract meditation, concentration of mind on one object, perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation, i. e. the Supreme Spirit, (the 8th and last stage of Yoga); व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते Bg.2.44; आत्मेश्वराणां न हि जातु विघ्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति Ku.3.4,5; Mk.1.1; Bh.3.54. R.8.79; Śi.4.55. -3 Intentness, concentration (in general), fixing of thoughts; यथा भानुगतं तेजो मणिः शुद्धः समाधिना । आदत्ते राजशार्दूल तथा योगः प्रवर्तते ॥ Mb.12.298.12; तस्यां लग्नसमाधि (मानसम्) Gīt.3; अहःसु तस्या हृदि ये समाधयः Rām. ch.2.41. -4 Penance, religious obligation, devotion (to penance); अस्त्येतदन्यसमाधिभीरुत्वं देवानाम् Ś1; तपः- समाधि Ku.3.24; अथोपयन्तारमलं समाधीना 5.24;5.6;1.59; सर्वथा दृढसमाधिर्भव Nāg.5. -5 Bringing together, concentration
    • Also समं धियते अनया (अवस्थया) इति समाधिः | = समाधि is that state of mind and intellect, when everything and every state is regarded equal
      • समम् 1 A level plain, flat country; संनिपत्य शनकैरिव निम्नादन्धकारमुदवाप समानि Ki.9. 11. -2 (In rhet.) N. of a figure of speech. -3 (In geometry) A mean proportional segment. -4 Equanimity. -5 Similarity. -6 Settlement; compensation; कर्मणापि समं कुर्याद्धनिकायाधमर्णिकः Ms.8.177. -7 Good circumstances; Mk.
      • समम् ind. 1 With, together with, in company with, accompanied by; (with instr.); आहां निवत्स्यति समं हरिणाङ्गनाभिः Ś.1.26; R.2.25;8.63; 16.72. -2 Equally; समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु Bg.13.27.28; यथा सर्वाणि भूतानि धरा धारयते समम् Ms.9.311. -3 Like, similarly, in the same manner; यत्र स्वामी निर्विशेषं समं मृत्येषु वर्तते Pt.1.78. -4 Entirely. -5 Simultaneously, all at once, at the same time, together; नवं पयो यत्र धनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् R.13.26;4.4;1.59;14.1. -6 Honestly, fairly.
    • अथवा समा धीः यया सा समाधिः = समाधि is balanced, equanimous (समा) state of mind and intellect,
      • सम a. 1 Same, identical. -2 Equal, as in समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः R.8.21; Pt.2.7; सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ Bg.2.38; समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः । शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः संगविवर्जितः ॥ 12.18. -3 Like, similar, resembling; with instr. or gen. or in comp. गुणयुक्तो दरिद्रो$पि नेश्वरैरगुणैः समः Subhāṣ.; Ku.3.13. -4 Even, level, plain; समवेशवर्तिनस्ते न दुरासदो भविष्यति Ś.1. -5 Even (as number). -6 Impartial, fair; शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः Bg.5.18. -7 Just, honest, upright. -8 Good, virtuous. -9 Ordinary, common. -1 Mean, middling. -11 Straight. -12 Suitable, convenient. -13 Indifferent, unmoved, unaffected by passion. -14 All, every one. -15 All, whole, entire, complete. -16 Being a pair. -17 Regular, normal. -18 Middling. -19 Easy, convenient.
  • (3-3) The third word स्थितधीः = स्थिता धीः यस्य सः इति स्थितधीः (बहुव्रीहिः) should mean one, whose intellect is steadfast or rather tranquil. Tranquility of the intellect presumes not only equanimity or staying unaffected by all external instincts but tranquility with respect to all internal thought-processes, with respect to all internal instincts also. What comes to mind is the difference between water of a river and water in a lake. River water can never be tranquil. Lake water can be. Bed of the river is never level. It causes the water to keep flowing downwards. Bed of a lake may also be not level, but its water is bound from all sides and has no scope to flow to anywhere. स्थिता धीः means intellect so bounded that it cannot waver either by external or internal instincts. Patanjali’s योगसूत्राणि starts with the aphorism योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः | By this, the word स्थितधीः can connote a योगी.
    • Something interesting about the grammar in this word स्थितधीः is that it is adjectival and here it is masculine with ending vowel being ई. Usually among model vowel-ending words we do not have a masculine ई-ending word. But here we have one such word स्थितधीः

(4) In both समाधिस्थस्य and स्थितधीः there is the noun धीः

  • धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
    • ध्यै चिन्तायाम् 1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.

(5) By above analysis also, the three words स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः are not synonymous. Rather they seem to connote a progression of how a योगी would progress – first  स्थितप्रज्ञ, then समाधिस्थ, further on स्थितधीः

(6) In the question का भाषा, the meaning of the word भाषा needs to be taken as ‘definition’ and not as ‘language’. The धातु is भाष् भ्वादि (१) सेट् आ० । भाष व्यक्तायां वाचि । Hence it means ‘to express’, ‘to narrate’ and hence ‘to elaborate’, ‘to comment’, ‘to define’

  • Meaning of धातु भाष् is detailed by पाणिनि as व्यक्तायां वाचि. Note, it is not उक्तायां वाचि. Here वाक् (= thought) should be understood in all four stages of its emergence – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. Also व्यक्ति/अभिव्यक्ति of वाक् need not be only by उक्ति speech. It can be by written form, by any articulation or by any artistic expression also.
    • In Apte’s dictionary – भाष् 1 Ā. (भाषते, भाषित) 1 To say, speak, utter; त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् Ku.5.81; oft. with two acc.; भीतां प्रियामेत्य वचो बभाषे R.7.66; आखण्डलः काममिदं बभाषे Ku.3.11; Bk.9.122. -2 To speak to, address; किंचिद्विहस्यार्थपतिं बभाषे R.2.46;3.51. -3 To tell, announce, declare; क्षितिपालमुञ्चैः प्रीत्या तमेवार्थमभाषतेव R.2. 51. -4 To speak or talk about. -5 To name, call. -6 To describe. -With अनु 1 to speak, say. -2 to communicate, announce; यथा यथा नरो$धर्मं स्वयं कृत्वानुभाषते Ms.11.228.
  • Meaning of भाषा [भाष्-अ] 1 Speech, talk; as in चारुभाषः. -2 Language, tongue; सत्या न भाषा भवति यद्यपि स्यात् प्रतिष्ठिता Ms.8.164. -3 A common or vernacular dialect; (a) the spoken Sanskṛit language (opp. छन्दस् or वेद); विभाषा भाषायाम् P.VI.1.181; (b) any Prākṛita dialect (opp. संस्कृत); भाषाश्च विविधा नृणाम् Ms.9.332; see प्राकृत. -4 Definition, description; स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा Bg.2.54. -5 An epithet of Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech. -6 (In law) The first of the four stages of a law-suit; the plaint, charge or accusation; यदावेदयते राज्ञे तद्भाषेत्यभिधीयते Y. -7 (In music) N. of a Rāgiṇī.

(7) Here, स्थितधीः is the subject word of the verb प्रभाषेत. It is logical to carry it forward as the subject word for the verbs आसीत and व्रजेत also. All are verb-forms in potential mood, विध्यर्थे (विधिलिङ्-लकारे) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्. By these verbs स्थितधीः is not someone meditating in a forlorn place. स्थितधीः is very much speaking, narrating, elaborating, staying here and there, going about, active. The interrogative pronoun किम् seems to mean both ‘how’ and ‘what’ –

  • स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत what and how he should be talking about
  • स्थितधीः किम् आसीत by what (concepts) and how he should be residing in, by what concepts, he should be steadfast
  • स्थितधीः किं व्रजेत how he should be moving about, conducting himself

(8) Human activity has been analyzed to be happening at three levels – mouth, mind and motion. These three levels are connoted by the verbs प्रभाषेत, आसीत, व्रजेत. These three verbs here make sort of a preview of a later statement शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत् कर्म प्रारभते नरः (18-15)

  • Incidentally all the three verbs here are आत्मनेपदी, their import reflecting unto oneself.
    • भाष् (भ्वा० सेट् आ० । भाष व्यक्तायां वाचि १.६९६)
    • आस् । अ० सेट् आ० । आस उपवेशने २.११
    • व्रज् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । (व्रज-) [गतौ] १.२४७ ॥
      व्रज् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । व्रज गतौ १.२८६ ॥
      व्रज् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । व्रज मार्गसंस्कारगत्योः १०.१०९
  • आत्मनेपदी, ‘the import reflecting unto oneself’ means that स्थितधीः indulges in all these, not to impress or preach anybody else, but only to elevate himself. But may be, he leads by example. By his own conduct, he sets the norm for conduct.

(9) The three धातु-s together connote the personality of a person, how and what he/she speaks, how his/her mind is cultivated and how he/she conducts oneself.

(10) Whereas the three धातु-s together connote how human activity is initiated, Individually also each धातु makes an interesting study.

  • Meaning of धातु आस् is detailed by पाणिनि as आस उपवेशने. The word उपवेशन is itself from धातु उपविश् (= to sit) By extended meaning, आस् would mean ‘to settle down at’, ‘to position oneself’, ‘to attain a status, a platform or a pedestal’. In Apte’s dictionary –
    • आस् I. 2 Ā. (आस्ते, आसांचक्रे, आसिष्ट; आसितुम्, आसित) 1 To sit, lie, rest; Bg.2.45; एतदासनमास्यताम् V.5; आस्यतामिति चोक्तः सन्नासीताभिमुखं गुरोः Ms.2.193. -2 To live, dwell; तावद्वर्षाण्यासते देवलोके Mb.; यत्रास्मै रोचते तत्रायमास्ताम् K.196; कुरूनास्ते Sk.; यत्रामृतास आसते Rv.9.15.2; Bk.4.6,8.79. -3 To sit quietly, take no hostile measures, remain idle; आसीनं त्वामुत्थापयति द्वयम् Śi.2.57. -4 To be, exist. -5 To be contained in; जगन्ति यस्यां सविकाशमासत Śi.1.23. -6 To abide, remain, continue or be in any state, be doing anything, last; oft. used with present participles to denote a continuous or uninterrupted action; विदारयन्प्रगर्जंश्चास्ते Pt.1 kept on, continued, tearing up and bellowing; used in this sense also with an adj., subst., indeclinable, past part., an adverb (तूष्णीम् &c.), or with the instr. of a noun; सुखेनास्ते &c. -7 To lead to, result in (with dat.); आस्तां मानसतुष्टये सुकृतिनां नीतिर्नवोढेव वः H.1.185 -8 To cease, have an end. -9 To solemnize, celebrate. -1 To let go, lay or put aside; आस्तां तावत् let it aside, let it go, to say nothing of, not to mention; K.18. -11 To be indifferent; ननु आस्ते इत्युपवेशने भवति । नावश्यमुपवेशने एव, औदासीन्ये$पि दृश्यते । ŚB. on MS.3.6.24. -Caus. To cause to sit, seat, fix; आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीम् Sk. Desid. आसिसिषते To wish to sit &c. –II.4. P. [आस्यति, आसितुम्] 1 To enclose; border. -2 To admit (as water) into.
  • धातु व्रज् is परस्मैपदी in प्रथमगण and उभयपदी in दशमगण. It has आत्मनेपदी रूपाणि in दशमगण. But व्रजेत does not fit in as a रूपम् in दशमगण. It does not fit in as a रूपम् in प्रथमगण either, because in प्रथमगण the धातु व्रज् is परस्मैपदी. So व्रजेत is certainly आर्षरूपम् (ऋषीणामिदमिति आर्षम् what ऋषी’s would employ is आर्ष). If one would think that one should be a ऋषी to be eligible to employ आर्षरूपम्, here it is used by Arjuna. It seems व्यासमुनि composed this question as asked by Arjuna, using आर्षरूपम्, as if to suggest that by whatever was narrated by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in 43 श्लोक-s from 11 to 53 has so elevated Arjuna’s thinking that he has become eligible to use आर्षरूपम्.
    • In धातुपाठ meaning of धातु व्रज् is detailed by पाणिनि as मार्गसंस्कारगत्योः. Note, व्रजनम् is not just गति or मार्गक्रमणम्. It is मार्गसंस्कार. That is what cows in व्रजभूमि do. In eating the grass, when walking along, they do मार्गसंस्कार. Moving about by स्थितधी also would effect मार्गसंस्कार. This mention seems to be the precursor to the mention यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठः तत्तदेवेतरो जनः | स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते ||३-२१||
    • In Apte’s dictionary – व्रज् I. 1 P. (व्रजत) 1 To go, walk, proceed; नाविनीतै- र्व्रजेद् धुर्यैः Ms.4.67. -2 To go to, approach, visit; मामेकं शरणं व्रज Bg.18.66. -3 To depart, retire, withdraw. -4 To pass away (as time); इयं व्रजति यमिनी त्यज नरेन्द्र निद्रारसम् Vikr.11.74. -5 To attain to, go to the state of. -6 To obtain, gain. -II. 1 U. (व्राजयति-ते) 1 To go. -2 To prepare, decorate. (This root is used much in the same way as गम् or या q. v.)
  • किं प्रभाषेत, किम् आसीत, किं व्रजेत seems to be precursor to the mention शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः (६-११)

(11) In this verse the questions asked by Arjuna are prompted by what has been said by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in the verses previous to this one. So, what has been said in the previous verses becomes the context for the questions in this verse. This means that this verse should be interpreted in continuation than in isolation.

  • The word समाधिस्थ in this verse has in it the components समाधि and स्थ, which have continuations from the words समाधौ स्थास्यति in the previous verse by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् – “यदा ते श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना बुद्धिः निश्चला समाधौ अचला स्थास्यति तदा योगम् अवाप्स्यसि”
  • The words धीः  and प्रज्ञा in this verse have the continuation with and synonymous to the word बुद्धिः in the previous verse by श्रीकृष्णभगवान्.

(12) In all the words together, धातु-s in this verse are स्था, प्र+ज्ञा, भाष्, ध्यै, प्र+भाष्, आस्, व्रज्

  • I thought it good to note भाष् and प्र+भाष् separately, because उपसर्ग-s do bring difference to the meaning of the धातु
    • In the word भाषा, the धातु भाष् has the sense, “to define”, i.e. how others should speak about a स्थितप्रज्ञ.
    • In the word प्रभाषेत, the धातु प्रभाष् has the sense, “to discourse, to express”, i.e. with what poise a स्थितधीः should carry himself. Because प्रभाष् is an action of a स्थितधीः, possibly there is a sense of “Body-language” or maybe only of disposition, than of a verbal expression.
  • The verbs आसीत and व्रजेत of course connote not just actions, but  maybe again dispositions of स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ, and स्थितधीः
  • There are so many shades of meaning for every धातु and in turn as many shades of meanings of the words.

(13) Questions asked by Arjuna should impress anyone by the intelligence inherent in them. They also bring forth how intent a listener he has been to what all was said by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् through as many as 43 verses. They also bring forth how intent a student should be to what is being taught by the teachers. The questions also bring forth how Arjuna grasped the essence. Anyway, being focused on the essence has been the hallmark of Arjuna’s character all through श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. The questions also bring forth that Arjuna is awakening to his true character, maybe, slowly, but surely.

(14) By asking the questions स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत, किमासीत, किं व्रजेत Arjuna seems to enquire how and what for somebody who will have become स्थितधीः, but for anyone who has to become स्थितधीः, himself, any one of us also ! गीता merits to be studied not just to understand what श्रीकृष्णभगवान् told to Arjuna, but what is there for us, for each one of us. To become स्थितधीः should be the urge in all of us. Arjuna’s questions are on behalf of all of us.

शुभमस्तु !!!