Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 57)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 57) 

गीतान्वेषणे अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५७

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् |

नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-५७||

पदच्छेदैः –

यः सर्वत्र अनभिस्नेहः तत् तत् प्राप्य शुभ-अशुभम् |

न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-५७||

(1) This श्लोक is in answer to Arjuna’s question in 2-54, in which Arjuna asks स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा ? First three quarters of this श्लोक detail how a person should be, so that for such person one can say तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता.

(2) First three quarters of this श्लोक are subclauses of a sentence, the main clause of which is तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता (भवति). The subclauses are –

  • यः सर्वत्र अनभिस्नेहः (भवति)
  • (यः) तत् तत् शुभ-अशुभम् प्राप्य न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि OR
    • (यः) शुभं प्राप्य तत् न अभिनन्दति
    • (यः) अशुभं प्राप्य तत् न द्वेष्टि

(3) I see 7 धातु-s in different words in this श्लोक. I would rather list them along with their prefixes उपसर्ग-s

  • (3-1) अभिस्निह् in अनभिस्नेहः (अन् + अभिस्नेहः)
    • (3-1-1) स्निह् 4 P. (स्निह्यति, स्निग्ध) 1 To feel or have affection for, love, be fond of (with loc. of the person or thing that is loved or liked); किं नु खलु बाले$स्मिन्नौरस इव पुत्रे स्निह्यति मे मनः Ś.7; स च स्निह्यत्यावयोः U.6 (where आवयोः may be genitive also). -2 To be easily attached. -3 To be pleased with, be kind to. -4 To be sticky, viscid, or adhesive. -5 To be smooth or bland. -Caus.(स्नेहयति-ते) 1 To make unctuous, anoint, besmear, lubricate. -2 To cause to love. -3 To dissolve, destroy, kill.
    • (3-1-2) स्नेहः [स्निह्-घञ्] 1 Affection, love, kindness, tenderness; स्नेहदाक्षिण्ययोर्योगात् कमीव प्रतिभाति मे V.2.4 (where it has sense 6 also); अस्ति मे सोदरस्नेहो$प्येतेषु Ś.1. -2 Oiliness, viscidity, unctuousness, lubricity (one of the 24 Guṇas according to the Vaiśeṣikas) -3 Moisture; तृष्णासंजननं स्नेह एष तेषां पुनर्भवः Mb.12.218.33. -4 Grease, fat, any unctuous substance. -5 Oil; निर्विष्टविषयस्नेहः स दशान्तमुपेयिवान् R.12.1; Pt.1.82 (where the word has sense 1 also), 221; R.4.75. -6 Any fluid of the body, such as semen.
  • (3-2) प्राप् in प्राप्य
    • (3-2-1) आप् 5. P., rarely 1 P. (आप्नोति or आपति, आप, आपत्, आप्स्यति, आप्तुम्, आप्त) 1 To obtain, attain, get; स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी Bg.2.7; 3.2; 3.19. पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12; अनुद्योगेन तैलानि तिलेभ्यो नाप्तुमर्हति H. Pr.25; शतं क्रतूनामपविध्नमाप सः R.3.38; so फलम्, कीर्तिम्, सुखम् &c. -2 To reach, go to; overtake, meet, fall in with; शबरीमापतुर्वने Bk.6.59. -3 To pervade, occupy, enter into. -4 To undergo, suffer, meet with; दिष्टान्तमाप्स्यति भवान् R.9.79; Ms.8.188. -5 To equal. -pass. (आप्यते) 1 To be reached, found, met with, obtained &c. -2 To arrive at one’s end or aim. -3 To become filled. -Caus. (आपयति) 1 To cause to reach or obtain. -2 To cause anyone to feel or perceive. -3 To hit.
  • (3-3) शुभ् in शुभाशुभम्
    • (3-3-1) शुभ् I. 1 (शोभते) 1 To shine, be splendid, look beautiful or handsome; सुष्ठु शोभसे एतेन विनयमाहात्म्येन U.1; R.8.6. -2 To appear to advantage; सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते Mk.1.1. -3 To suit, become, befit (with gen.); रामभद्र इत्येवोपचारः शोभते तातपरिजनस्य U.1. -4 To be gay or happy. -5 To be victorious. -II. 6 P. (शुभति) To shine; L. D. B. -Caus. (शोभयति-ते) To decorate, adorn, grace. -With परि, वि to shine, look splendid.
    • (3-3-2) शुभ a. [शुभ्-क] 1 Shining, bright. -2 Beautiful, handsome; जङ्घे शुभे सृष्टवतस्तदीये Ku.1.35. -3 Auspicious, lucky, happy, fortunate. -4 Eminent, good, virtuous; येन केनाप्युपायेन शुभेनाप्यशुभेन वा उद्धरेद्दीनमात्मानम् Pt.1.358. -5 Learned, versed in the Vedas. -भः 1 N. of a yoga; L. D. B. -2 The Almighty (अज); L. D. B. -3 Water. -4 A he-goat. -भम् 1 Auspiciousness, welfare, good fortune, happiness, good prosperity; प्रायः शुभं च विदधात्यशुभं च जन्तोः सर्वंकषा भगवती भवितव्यतैव Māl.1.23. -2 An ornament. -3 Water. -4 A kind of fragrant wood.
  • (3-4) अभिनन्द् in अभिनन्दति
    • (3-4-1) नन्द् 1 P. (नन्दति, नन्दित) To be glad, be pleased, delighted or satisfied, rejoice at (anything); ननन्दतुस्त- त्सदृशेन तत्समौ R.3.23.11;2.22;4.3. Bk.15.28. -2 To be propitious; be gracious; दैवतानि न नन्दन्ति धर्मयुक्तेन केनचित् Rām.7.15.2. -Caus. (नन्दयति-ते) To please, delight, gladden, make happy; अन्तर्हिते शशिनि सैव कुमुद्वती मे दृष्टिं न नन्दयति संस्मरणीयशोभा Ś.4.3; Bk.2.16; R.9.52.
  • (3-5) द्विष् in द्वेष्टि
    • (3-5-1) द्विष् 2 U. (द्वेष्टि, द्विष्टे; द्विष्ट) To hate, dislike, be hostile towards; न द्वेक्षि यज्जनमतस्त्वमजातशुत्रुः Ve.3.15; नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता Bg.2.57;18.1; Bk. 17.61;18.9; रम्यं द्वेष्टि Ś.6.5 (Prepositions like प्र, वि and सम् are prefixed to this root without any change of meaning.)
  • (3-6) प्रज्ञा in प्रज्ञा
    • (3-6-1) ज्ञा 9 U. (जानाति, जानीते, जज्ञौ, जज्ञे, अज्ञासीत्-अज्ञास्त, ज्ञातुम्, ज्ञात) 1 To know (in all senses), to learn, become acquainted with; मा ज्ञासीस्त्वं सुखी रामो यदकार्षीत् स रक्षसाम् Bk.15.9. -2 To know, be aware of, be familiar or conversant with; जाने तपसो वीर्यम् Ś.3.1; जानन्नपि हि मेधावी जडवल्लोक आचरेत् Ms.2.11,123;7.148. -3 To find out, ascertain, investigate; ज्ञायतां कः कः कार्यार्थीति Mk.9. -4 To comprehend, apprehend, understand, feel, experience; as in दुःखज्ञ, सुखज्ञ &c. -5 To test, try, know the true character of; आपत्सु मित्रं जानीयात् H.1.72; Chāṇ.21. -6 To recognise; न त्वं दृष्ट्वा न पुनरलकां ज्ञास्यसे कामचारिन् Me.63. -7 To regard, consider, know to be; जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषं कामरूपं मघोनः Me.6. -8 To act, engage in (with gen. of the instrument); सर्पिषो जानीते Sk. ‘he engages in sacrifice with clarified butter (सर्पिषः = सर्पिषा). -9 Ved. To acknowledge, approve, allow. -1 To recognise as one’s own, take possession of. -Caus.(ज्ञापयति, ज्ञपयति) 1 To announce, inform, make acquainted with, make known, notify. -2 To request, ask (Ātm.). -3 To sharpen. -4 To satisfy. -5 To praise. -6 To immolate, kill (as an animal). -Desid. (जिज्ञासते) 1 To desire to know, investigate, ascertain; R.2.26; Bk.8.33;14.91. -2 To conjecture, suppose, guess.
    • (3-6-2) प्रज्ञा 1 Intelligence, understanding, intellect, wisdom; आकारसदृशप्रज्ञः प्रज्ञया सदृशागमः R.1.15; नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता Bg.2.57; शस्त्रं निहन्ति पुरुषस्य शरीरमेकं प्रज्ञा कुलं च विभवं यशश्च हन्ति ॥ Subhāṣ. -2 Discernment, discrimination, judgment; इयं निष्ठा बहुविधा प्रज्ञया त्वध्यवस्यति Mb.14.3.24. -3 Device or design. -4 A wise or learned woman. -5 Longing for (वासना); impression (संस्कार); तं विद्याकर्मणि समन्वारभेते पूर्वप्रज्ञा च Bṛi. Up.4.4.2. -6 N. of the goddess Sarasvatī. -7 A particular Śakti or energy. -8 A true or transcendental wisdom; Buddh.
  • (3-7) प्रतिस्था in प्रतिष्ठिता
    • (3-7-1) स्था 1 P. (Ātm. also in certain senses; तिष्ठति- ते, तस्थौ, तस्थे, अस्थात्-अस्थित, स्थास्यति-ते, स्थातुं, स्थित; pass. स्थीयते; the स् of this root is changed to ष् after a preposition ending in इ or उ) 1To stand; अयं स ते तिष्ठति संगमोत्सुकः Ś.3.13; चलत्येकेन पादेन तिष्ठत्येकेन बुद्धिमान् Subhāṣ -2 To stay, abide, dwell, live; ग्रामे or गृहे तिष्ठति -3 To remain, be left; यावदेकानुदिष्टस्य गन्धो लेपश्च तिष्ठति. Ms.4.111; एको गङ्गदत्तस्तिष्ठति Pt.4. -2 To delay, wait; किमिति स्थीयते Ś.2. -5 To stop, cease, desist, stand still; तिष्ठत्येष क्षणमधिपतिर्ज्योतिषां व्योममध्ये V.2.1. -6 To be kept aside; तिष्ठतु तावत् पत्रलेखागमनवृत्तान्तः K. ‘never mind the account of’ &c. -7 To be, exist, be in any state or position; often with participles; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; व्याप्य स्थितं रोदसी V.1.1; या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वं Ś.1.1; कालं नयमाना तिष्ठति Pt.1; Ms.7.8. -8 To abide by, conform to, obey (with loc.); शासने तिष्ठ भर्तुः V.5. 17. R.11.65. -9 To be restrained; यदि ते तु न तिष्ठेयुरुपायैः प्रथमैस्त्रिभिः Ms.7.18. -1 To be at hand, be obtainable; न विप्रं स्वेषु तिष्ठत्सु मृतं शूद्रेण नाययेत् Ms.5.14. -11 To live, breathe; आः क एष मयि स्थिते चन्द्रगुप्तमभिभवितु- मिच्छति Mu.1. -12 To stand by or near, stand at one’s side, help; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे शत्रुसंकटे (राष्ट्रविप्लवे) । राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ H.1.71 (v. l.). -13 To rest or depend on; जहातु नैनं कथमर्थसिद्धिः संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -14 To do, perform, occupy oneself with; न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नोपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् Ms.2.13. -15 (Ātm.) To resort or go to (as an umpire), be guided by the advice of; संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -16 (Ātm.) To offer oneself to (for sexual embrace), stand as a prostitute (with dat.); गोपी स्मरात् कृष्णाय तिष्ठते Sk. on P.I.4.34. -Caus. (स्थापयति-ते) 1 To cause to stand. -2 To lay, set, place, put. -3 To found, establish. -4 To stop. -5 To arrest, check. -6 To raise, erect. -7 To cause to last or continue, make durable. -8 To give in marriage; लोकश्रेष्ठे गुणवति वरे स्थापिता त्वं मयैव Māl.1.5. -9 To instruct in, initiate into. -Desid. (तिष्ठासति) To wish to stand &c.

(4) In the phrase यः सर्वत्र अनभिस्नेहः

  • the word अनभिस्नेहः is adjective of यः.
  • But, as detailed at (3-1-2) स्नेहः is a noun, meaning ‘affection, love, affliction, attachment’.
  • So we need to consider अनभिस्नेहः as a नञ्-बहुव्रीहि compound with its विग्रह as यस्य अभिस्नेहः न (भवति) सः अनभिस्नेहः One, who has no attachment, affliction.

(5) I have been also thinking that pronunciation of  यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहः without affecting the meter and with smoothness of recitation, can as well be यः सर्वत्रान्नभिस्नेहः It can also be that this श्लोक could have two versions पाठभेद-s,

  • one as यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहः or
  • another as यः सर्वत्रान्नभिस्नेहः.

With यः सर्वत्रान्नभिस्नेहः, the पदच्छेद would be –

यः सर्वत्रान् अभिस्नेहः तत् तत् प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् |

न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||

By this पदच्छेद the phrase यः सर्वत्रान् अभिस्नेहः may be interpreted as one who has अभिस्नेह i.e. compassion, सर्वत्रान् for all. The compassion unto all means, at the least, “malice unto none”.

In such interpretation, one would be taking the liberty of treating सर्वत्र as an adjective. This would be grammatically challengeable. But this presents an interesting facet.

This interpretation brings to mind the story of मीराबाई. She had most frightening experience of अशुभं प्राप्य, in the instance when she was forced to drink poison. Having survived that, did she harbour any malice or hatred unto the king who had schemed that ? Her total response was न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि.

If Jesus, when carrying the cross, said, “Pardon them, oh God, they do not know, what they are doing”, that then is also compassion with malice unto none.

6) Having compassion for all सर्वत्रान् अभिस्नेहः and also न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि ‘with malice unto none’, seems to be even superior to सर्वत्र अनभिस्नेहः One, who has no attachment, affliction.

7) Advice here to अर्जुन seems to be even more challenging than the instances of Jesus Christ or मीराबाई. They had no option. But अर्जुन had an option, not to fight, like what he proposed in the first chapter. But all of गीता is explanation and advice by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् that ‘not to fight’ was a bad option. Advice in this श्लोक then is “fight, but have no malice unto anybody, not even unto the enemies.” The fight is also to be with steadfastness of the mind that

  • it will not rejoice शुभं प्राप्य तत् न अभिनन्दति
  • nor will it become antagonistic अशुभं प्राप्य तत् न द्वेष्टि, i.e.
  • regardless, whether the result will be positive or negative.

शुभमस्तु |

-o-O-o-

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