Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 61)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 61) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ६१) 

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः |

वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६१||

पदच्छेदैः –

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्तः आसीत मत्परः |

वशे हि यस्य इन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६१||

अन्वयः –

  1. तानि सर्वाणि (प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि) संयम्य (मनुजः) मत्परः (मत्-)युक्तः आसीत |
  2. यस्य इन्द्रियाणि वशे तस्य हि प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता |

अन्वेषणम् –

(1) The words तानि सर्वाणि are pronouns, which connect up this श्लोक with the previous. So it becomes good to detail the अन्वय with (प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि) in parenthesis to explain what the pronouns तानि सर्वाणि are referring to.

(2) तानि सर्वाणि (प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि) संयम्य can be seen to be the precondition to (मनुजः) मत्परः (मत्-)युक्तः आसीत.

  • (2-1) Grammatically संयम्य is ल्यप्-कृदन्तम् from धातुः सम् + यम्
    • (2-1-1) यम् । भ्वा० अनिट् प० । यम उपरमे १.११३९ ॥
      यम् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । यम(म्) [यम] च परिवेषणे । चान्मित् १०.११९ ॥
      यम् । यमो-परिवेषणे [मित्] १.९५३
    • (2-1-2) यम् 1 P. (यच्छति, ययाम, अयंसीत्, यंस्यति, यन्तुम्, यत; desid. यियंसति) 1 To check, curb, restrain, control, subdue, stop, suppress; यच्छेद् वाङ्मनसी प्रज्ञः Kaṭh; यतचित्तात्मन् Bg.4.21
    • (2-1-3) The prefix सम् connotes total. So संयम्य = on total control
  • (2-2) मत्परः is a compound word.
    • (2-2-1) As पूर्वपदम् in a compound word, मत् stands for singular of अस्मद्
    • (2-2-2) When deciphering the compound, मत् can be taken in any appropriate case(s).
    • (2-2-3) Since उत्तरपदम् here is परः, मत्परः = मयि परः appeals to be a good deciphering, considering meaning of परः as “.. (At the end of comp.) Having anything as the highest object, absorbed or engrossed in, intent on, solely devoted to, wholly engaged or occupied in; परिचर्यापरः R.1.91; so ध्यानपर, शोकपर, दैवपर, चिन्तापर &c. ..”
  • (2-3) Grammatically युक्तः is क्त-कृदन्तम् from धातुः युज् –
    • (2-3-1) युज् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । युज- [संयमने] १०.३३८ ॥
      युज् । दि० अनिट् आ० । युज समाधौ ४.७४ ॥
      युज् । रु० अनिट् उ० । युजिर् योगे ७.७
    • (2-3-2) युक्त p. p. [युज्-क्त] 1 Joined, united. -2 Fastened, yoked, harnessed. -3 Fitted out, arranged; उदतिष्ठन् महाराज सर्वं युक्तमशेषतः Mb.6.16.4. -4 Accompanied; युक्तः प्रमाद्यसि Ki.11.29. -5 Furnished or endowed with, filled with, having, possessing (with instr. or in comp.) -6 Fixed or intent on, absorbed or engaged in, devoted to (with loc.); कौसल्यायां यथा युक्तो जनन्यां वर्तते सदा Rām.2.2.3; युक्तः प्रजानामनुरञ्जने स्याः U.1.11; Pt.1.284. -7 Used, employed. -8 Adapted, fitted. -9 Appointed (a government servant); अपि शक्या गतिर्ज्ञातुं पततां खे पतत्रिणाम् । न तु प्रच्छन्नभावानां युक्तानां चरतां गतिः ॥ मत्स्या यथान्तःसलिले चरन्तो ज्ञातुं न शक्याः सलिलं पिवन्तः । युक्तास्तथा कार्यविधौ नियुक्ता ज्ञातुं न शक्या धनमाददानाः ॥ Kau. A.2.9. -10 Connected with. -11 Proved, inferred, -12 Active, diligent. -13 Skilful, experienced, clever; सुग्रीवमन्त्रिते युक्तौ मम चापि हिते रतौ Rām.7.39.18. -14 Fit, proper, right, suitable (with gen. or loc). -15 Primitive, not derived (from another word). -16 = योगयुक्त q. v.; अनिःश्वसन्तं युक्तं तम् Rām.7.16.16; cf. युक्तचेतस्. -17 = नियमवान्; श्रद्दधानः सदा युक्तः सदा धर्मपरायणः Mb.1. 1.261. -18 (In astr.) Being in conjunction with. -क्तः 1 A saint who has become one with the Supreme Spirit.
    • (2-3-3) Taking clue from मत्परः I thought it fit to detail in the युक्तः as (मत्)युक्तः Of course, मद्युक्तः can be variously deciphered as मया युक्तः connected with me or मयि युक्तः engaged in me or one with me or मह्यं युक्तः fit for me or fit to be with me

(3) Grammar of आसीत is आ + सद्(त्) लोटि मध्यमपुरुषः, एकवचनम्. So आसीत means ‘one should be’ or ‘man should be’. Hence in the अन्वय, (मनुजः) is supplemented as subject of the verb आसीत.

(4) In the phrase यस्य इन्द्रियाणि वशे, the word वशे is सप्तमी एकवचनम् of वशः which is masculine noun घञ् from धातुः वश्

  • वशः, वशम् Power, influence, control, mastership, authority, subjection, submission; स्ववश ‘subject to oneself’, independent; परवश ‘under the influence of others’; अनयत् प्रभुशक्तिसंपदा वशमेको नृपती- ननन्तरान् R.8.19; वशं नी, or आनी to reduce to subjection, subdue, win over; वशं गम्-इ-या &c. to become subject to, give way, yield, submit; विषमालोड्य पास्यामि मा कीचकवशं गमम् Mb.4.21.48; न शुचो वशं वशिनामुत्तम गन्तुमर्हसि R.8.9; वशे कृ or वशीकृ to subdue, overcome, win over; to fascinate, bewitch; वशात् (abl.) is frequently used adverbially in the sense of ‘through the force, power or influence of’, ‘on account of’, ‘for the purpose of’; दैववशात्, वायुवशात्, कार्यवशात् &c. -3 Being tamed
  • वश् । अ० सेट् प० । वश कान्तौ २.७५
  • वश् 2 P. (वष्टि, उशित) 1 To wish, desire, long for; निःस्वो वष्टि शतं शती दशशतम् Śānti 2.6; अमी हि वीर्यप्रभवं भवस्य जयाय सेनान्यमुशन्ति देवाः Ku.3.15; Ś.7.26; वष्टि भागुरिरल्लोपमवाप्योरुपसर्गयोः Sk. -2 To favour. -3 To shine (कान्तौ). -4 To aver, maintain, declare for; यत् सात्वताः पुरुषरूपमुशन्ति सत्त्वम् Bhāg.12.8.46;1.5.1.

(5) The phrase तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता has been studied in posts 63 and 64 when studying श्लोक-s 2-57 and 2-58

  • In the अन्वय I have put हि in this phrase and worded it as तस्य हि प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता to connote the implied emphasis.

(6) Overall meaning then becomes –

  1. तानि सर्वाणि (प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि) संयम्य (मनुजः) मत्परः (मत्-)युक्तः आसीत = On attaining command over इन्द्रियाणि, which are susceptible to distractions, one should become and stay engaged in me, devoted to me and fit to be with me
  2. यस्य इन्द्रियाणि वशे तस्य हि प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता = One, who has इन्द्रियाणि  in his command, only his intellect is steadfast.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

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Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 60)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 60) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ६०) 

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ।।२-६०।।

पदच्छेदैः –

यततः हि अपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ।।२-६०।।

अन्वयः

  1. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः हि अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति |
  2. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, (तानि) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति |
  3. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि |

अन्वेषणम्

(1) There are three options for the placement of हि in the अन्वय.

  • हि ind. (Never used at the beginning of a sentence) It has the following senses:– 1 For, because (expressing a strict or logical reason); अग्निरिहास्ति धूमो हि दृश्यते GaNaratna-Mahodadhi of Vardhamana; R.5.1. -2 Indeed, surely; देव प्रयोगप्रधानं हि नाठ्यशास्त्रम् M.1; न हि कमलिनीं दृष्ट्वा ग्राहमवेक्षते मतङ्गजः M. 3. -3 For instance, as is well known; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थ स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् । सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः R.1.18. -4 Only, alone (to emphasize an idea); मूढो हि मदनेना- यास्यते K.155. -5 Sometimes it is used merely as an expletive.
  • In the first option हि is placed before अपि, as is in the पदच्छेद.
  • In the second option इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, it has the meaning ‘because’
    • Then the अन्वय is better read as comprising three clauses
      • विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि
      • इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि
      • (तानि = प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि ) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति
  • In the third option, मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि, it emphasizes the idea प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति. Here the अन्वय has two clauses
    • विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि
    • प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि
  • It becomes a point for deliberation whether all three options or which one of the three options is appropriate.

(2) The clause विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि has सच्छष्ठीप्रयोगः.

  • The word विपश्चितः was also there in श्लोक 2-42. Study of it is in Post #52
  • There the word was अविपश्चितः and was पुँ. प्रथमा, बहुवचनम्. Here it is पुँ. षष्ठी, एकवचनम्
  • यततः – पुँ. षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of यतत् (शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणं यत्-धातोः)
    • यत् – 1 Ā. (यतते, यतित) 1 To attempt, endeavour, strive, try (usually with inf. or dat.); सर्वः कल्ये वयसि यतते लब्धुमर्थान् कुटुम्बी V.3.1. -2 To strive after, be eager or anxious for, long for; या न ययौ प्रियमन्यवधूभ्यः सारतरा- गमना यतमानम् Śi.4.45; R.9.7. -3 To exert oneself, persevere, labour. -4 To observe caution, be watchful; यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः Bg.2.60. -5 Ved. To excite, stir up, rouse. -6 To join. associate with. -7 To go, proceed.
    • It is interesting that श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #4.
      • Keeping this meaning #4 in mind, one can say that when विश्वामित्रऋषि was lured by मेनका, it was his alertness, watchfulness, which failed.
      • It is said that by spiritual pursuits one may attain some सिद्धि. That सिद्धि itself often becomes the impediment for further progress, if one indulges in showing off the सिद्धि, thereby losing the track of spiritual pursuit.

(3) The next phrase to discuss is इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि in अन्वय-options 1 and 3 and इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि in अन्वय-option 2.

  • प्रमाथीनि is नपुं. प्रथमा, बहुवचनम् of प्रमाथिन्
  • प्रमाथिन् a. 1 Tormenting, harassing, torturing, afflicting, harrowing; क्व रुजा हृदयप्रमाथिनी क्व च ते विश्वसनीयमायुधम् M.3.2; Māl.2.1; Ki.3.14. -2 Killing, destroying. -3 Agitating, setting in motion; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.60;6.34. -4 Tearing or pulling down, striking down; वर्त्मसु ध्वजतरुप्रमाथिनः R.11.58. -5 Cutting down; प्रमाथिनस्तान् भवमार्गणानाम् (बाणान्) Ki.17.31.
    • It is interesting that श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #3.
  • प्रमाथिन् is derived from धातु प्र + मथ् / मन्थ्
    • मन्थ् मथ् 1, 9 P. (मन्थति, मथति, मथ्नाति, मथित; pass. मथ्यते) To churn, to produce by churning; (oft. with two acc.) सुधां सागरं ममन्थुः or देवासुरैरमृतम्बुनिधिर्ममन्थे Ki.5. 3. -2 To agitate, shake, stir round or up, turn up and down; (fig. also); तस्मात् समुद्रादिव मथ्यमानात् R.16. 79. -3 (a) To crush, grind. (b) To grind down, oppress, afflict, trouble, distress sorely; मन्मथो मां मथ्नन् निजनाम सान्वयं करोति Dk.; जातां मन्ये शिशिरमथितां पद्मिनीं वान्यरूपाम् Me.85 (v. l.). -4 To hurt, injure. -5 To destroy, kill, annihilate, crush down; मथ्नामि कौरवशतं समरे न कोपात् Ve.1.15; अमन्थीच्च परानीकम् Bk.15.46; 14.36. -6 To tear off, dislocate. -7 To mix, mingle.

(4) The next phrase to discuss is प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति.

  • Detailing in the dictionary makes very interesting reading – प्रसभः Force, violence, impetuosity; प्रसभोद्धृतारिः R.2.3. -भम् ind. 1 Violently, forcibly, perforce; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.60; Ms.8.332. -2 Very much, exceedingly; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः Ś.1.5; नार्यो हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् Ṛs.6.25. -3 Importunately; सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तम् Bg.11.41.
    • Is it not interesting that here also श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #1 ?
    • प्रसभम् is mentioned as indeclinable from प्रसभः for the meaning प्रसभेन सह i.e. forcefully.

(5) Overall meaning with different अन्वय-s

  • (5-1) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः हि अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, his senses, which are susceptible to excitations, may cause the mind to be distracted forcefully.
  • (5-2) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, (तानि) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, because his senses are susceptible to excitations, they may cause mind to be distracted forcefully.
  • (5-3) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, his senses, which are susceptible to excitations, will end up distracting the mind forcefully.
  • (5-4) I must admit that my English translations have not brought out the subtle differences in the three अन्वय-s.

(6) It seems that this श्लोक is a preamble to the next श्लोक. We shall see how the two श्लोक-s connect up.

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o-

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 59)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 59) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५९) 

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ।।२-५९।।

पदच्छेदैः –

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्जं रसः अपि अस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ।।२-५९।।

अन्वयः –

  1. अस्य निराहारस्य देहिनः विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते |
  2. (एनं) परं रसवर्जं दृष्ट्वा रसः अपि निवर्तते |

अन्वेषणम् –

(1)  Commentary of रामानुजाचार्य on this श्लोक starts with a very interesting opening statement इन्द्रियाणाम् आहारो विषयाः This of course has the context of the word निराहारस्य, which is sixth case singular of निराहार (either masculine or neuter, here masculine).

  • (1-1) This word निराहार is from धातुः निर् + आ + हृ.
  • (1-2) In निराहार there are three components निर्, आ and हारः  
    • (1-2-1) Since [हृ-घञ्] would be हरः, व्युत्पत्तिः of हारः should be [हृ-णिच् घञ्].
    • (1-2-2) हृ I 1 U. (हरति-ते, जहार, जहे, अहार्षीत्, अहृत, हरिष्यति-ते, हर्तुम्, हृत; pass. ह्रियते) 1 To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधविश्लेषितस्य Me.7; Ms.4.74.
      • (1-2-2-1) -Caus. (हारयति-ते) 1 To cause to take, carry or convey, send (something) by one, (with acc. or instr.); मृत्यं मृत्येन वा भारं हारयति Sk.; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयीं हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् Me.4; Ms.8.114; Ku.2. 39. -2 To cause to be taken away, to lose, be deprived of. -3 To give away. -Desid.(जिहीर्षति-ते) To wish to take &c.
  • (1-3) Among the three components निर्, आ and हारः, we can combine आ and हारः to get आहारः Then we have two components निर् and आहारः
    • (1-3-1) आहारः is a noun, meaning diet or what is consumed
    • (1-3-2) निराहारः as a noun would mean fasting
  • (1-4) But here in निराहारस्य देहिनः the word निराहारस्य is adjectival to देहिनः
    • For such adjectival meaning, we need to treat निराहारः as a compound word with निर् and आहारः as the component words.
    • The derived adjectival meaning then can be निर्गतः आहारः यस्मात् सः one, from whom all consumption has gone away.
    • Better still, to conform to the import, निष्कासितः आहारः येन सः one, who has cast off all consumption

(2) The word देहिनः is grammatically both fifth case and sixth case singular (either masculine or neuter, here masculine) of the adjective देहिन्.

  • (2-1) If we focus on विषयाः (= interests) विनिवर्तन्ते (= retire, go away, stay away) and ask the question “Go away or stay away from where ?”, then the answer should be ‘from the देहिन्’ hence देहिनः as fifth case singular becomes appropriate.
  • (2-2) If we take अस्य निराहारस्य देहिनः विषयाः as one single phrase, to mean ‘interests of such bodily entity, which has undertaken fasting, has become निराहार, then the sixth case becomes appropriate.
  • (2-3) The import may not be much different. But when writing word-by-word meaning, the paraphrasing will be different.

(3) Interesting it is to note that instead of a person’s staying away from all interests, the interests themselves stay away ! The ‘interests’ do not find him interesting any more ! Point to deliberate becomes, whether this is an idiomatic statement or whether it can actually happen only like this.

(4) रसः अपि निवर्तते is also a statement in the same vein.

(5) But is not रसः an inherent part of विषयाः ?

  • (5-1) But they have been mentioned in two different sentences, distinct from each other. So they need to be deliberated upon separately.
  • (5-2) विषयः 1 An object of sense; (these are five, corresponding to the five organs of sense; रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द corresponding to the eye, tongue, nose, skin, and ear)
    • (5-2-1) विष् I. 3 U. (वेवष्टि, वेविष्टे, विष्ट) 1 To surround. -2 To spread through, extend, pervade. -3 To embrace. -4 To accomplish, to effect, to perform. -5 To eat. -6 To go to, go against, encounter; (not generally used in classical literature). -II. 9 P. (विष्णाति) To separate, disjoin. -III. 1 P. (वेषति) To sprinkle, pour out.
  • (5-3) रसः – Its meanings are derived from those of the धातु रस्, there again, its meanings in 10 U.
    • रस (रस्) । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । रस आस्वादनस्नेहनयोः १०.४७७ ॥
      • 10  U. (रसयति-ते, रसित) 1 To taste, relish; रसती रसना रसान् Mb.12.285.19; मृद्वीका रसिता Bv.4.13; Śi. 1.27; Mv.7.3. -2 To feel, perceive. -3 To love.
  • (5-4) From the above, it comes to mind that विषयाः are external instincts and रसः is internal.
    • Even when a poet dwells on non-existent ideas, yet the poetry is charming, such poetry is full of काव्यरसः.
  • (5-5) In the context of विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते can we say that मेनका would not have been able to distract विश्वामित्रऋषि, if his intellect would have become so steadfast, that the result would have been only विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते ?

(6) The word रसवर्जम् also makes an interesting study. It is a compound word having रस and वर्ज् as the component words. In (एनं) परं रसवर्जं दृष्ट्वा the word रसवर्जम् is object of the verbal derivative दृष्ट्वा. Hence it is masculine second case singular of रसवर्जः

  • (6-1) Since रसवर्जः is also adjectival to एनम्, such derivation of meaning should be as रसस्य वर्जः येन सः or रसस्य वर्जः यस्मै सः To weigh these two options we may rather examine वर्जः
  • (6-2) In Apte’s dictionary वर्जः Leaving, abandoning.
    • (6-2-1) वर्जनम् [वृज्-ल्युट्] 1 Leaving, giving up, abandoning. -2 Renouncing. -3 Exception, exclusion; P. I.4.88.
    • (6-2-2) Taking clue from वर्जनम् [वृज्-ल्युट्], वर्जः should be [वृज्-घञ्]. Basically the धातु is वृज्
  • (6-3) वृज् I. 2 Ā. (वृक्ते) To avoid, shun, abandon. -II. 7 P. (वृणक्ति) 1 To avoid, shun, give up, abandon. -2 To choose; आसामेकतमां वृङ्ध्वं सवर्णां स्वर्गभूषणाम् Bhāg.11.4. 14;5.1.16. -3 To atone for, efface, purify; तन्मे रेतः पिता वृङ्क्तामित्यस्यैतन्निदर्शनम् Ms.9.2. -4 To turn away, avert. -5 To remove, set aside. -6 To give, bestow. -7 To hurt, injure, kill. -8 To take away; परस्परं घ्नन्ति शपन्ति वृञ्जते पशून् स्त्रियो$र्थान् पुरुदस्यवो जनाः Bhāg.1.18.44. -III. 1 P., 1 U. [वर्जति, वर्जयति-ते, वर्जित] 1 To shun, avoid. -2 To give up, abandon. -3 To exclude, set aside, leave out, except; हंसो हि क्षीरमादत्ते तन्मिश्रा वर्जयत्यपः Ś.6.28. -4 To abstain from. -5 To cut to pieces. -6 To take away, deprive (one) of. -7 To discharge, pour or give out, emit. (The following verse from Kavi-Rahasya illustrates the root in its different conjugations – वृणक्ति वृजिनैः संगं वृक्ते च वृषलैः सह । वर्जत्यनार्जवोपेतैः स वर्जयति दुर्जनैः ॥)
  • (6-4) Considering that the अन्वयः is (एनं) परं रसवर्जं दृष्ट्वा रसः अपि निवर्तते, the विग्रहः as रसस्य वर्जः येन सः (one, who has resolved abandonment or casting off of रसः) suggests higher self-same intellectual strength than रसस्य वर्जः यस्मै सः (one, for whom it has to be abandonment or casting off of रसः).

(7) Honestly speaking, I had somehow memorized this श्लोकः reciting as रसवर्ज्यम् in place of रसवर्जम्. Grammatically रसवर्ज्यम् is also a valid word. Pronunciations of रसवर्ज्यम् in place of रसवर्जम् is quite similar-sounding and does not affect the rhyme either. रसवर्ज्यम् also  makes an interesting study. It is a compound word having रस and वर्ज्य as the component words.

  • वर्ज्य is adjectival derivative from धातुः वृज् having ण्यत्-प्रत्ययः
    • Such कृदन्त has passive voice inbuilt.
  • In (एनं) परं रसवर्ज्यं दृष्ट्वा the word रसवर्ज्यम् is object of the verbal derivative दृष्ट्वा. Hence it is masculine second case singular of रसवर्ज्यः.
  • Considering that वर्ज्यः has passive voice inbuilt, deciphering रसवर्ज्यः should be रसेण वर्ज्यः (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) to be shunned by रस. Since रस is discussed above as internal instinct, रसवर्ज्यः means one, who is to be shunned by रस, hence one, from whom all internal instincts also shun away.

(8) It comes to mind that a देही, from whom विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते and also रसः अपि निवर्तते, because he is रसवर्ज्यः, is like a sea, which is calm not only on the surface, but has no undercurrents also. A sea, which is calm on the surface could have undercurrents, maybe, due to movements of whales and other amphibians. Those amphibians are like रस-s ! They also shun such part of the sea, which is रसवर्ज्य.

(9) The रसवर्ज्य state is further qualified by the word परम्.

  • (9-1) Grammatically word पर a. [पॄ-भावे-अप्, कर्तरि अच्-वा] (Declined optionally like a pronoun in nom. voc. pl., and abl. and loc. sing. when it denotes relative position)
    • (9-1-1) Its etymology पॄ-भावे-अप्, कर्तरि अच्-वा provokes an interesting study. This etymology itself seems to get different meanings associated with the word पर.
    • (9-1-2) धातु itself is पॄ 3, 9 P. (पिपर्ति, पृणाति, पपार, अपारीत्, परि-री-ष्यति, परि-री-तुम्, पूर्ण; pass. पूर्यते; caus. पूरयति-ते; desid. पिपरि- री-षति, पुपूर्षति) 1 To fill, fill up, complete. -2 To fulfil, gratify (as hopes &c.). -3 To fill with wind, blow (as a conch, flute &c.). -4 To satisfy, refresh, please; पितॄनपारात् Bk.1.2. -5 To rear, bring up, nourish, nurture, cherish.
  • (9-2) One interesting meaning of पर, which seems relevant here is “.. Highest, greatest, most distinguished, pre-eminent, chief, best, principal; क्षत्रात् परं नास्ति Bṛi. Up.1.4.11. न त्वया द्रष्टव्यानां परं दृष्टम् Ś.2; Ki.5.18; परतो$पि परः Ku.2.14 ‘higher than the highest’; 6.19; Ś7.27…”

(10) The implied advice to अर्जुन is for him to become such a देही, from whom विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते and also रसः अपि निवर्तते, because he is परं रसवर्ज्यः. And that advice to अर्जुन is eternal advice for the mankind, certainly for each one of us. Very, very challenging though !!

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 58)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 58) 

गीतान्वेषणे अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५८

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-५८||

पदच्छेदैः –

यदा संहरते च अयं कूर्मः अङ्गानि इव सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-५८||

अन्वयः – I think interpretation becomes easier by writing the अन्वय as three clauses –

  1. कूर्मः अङ्गानि सर्वशः संहरते इव
  2. यदा अयं च इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः इन्द्रियाणि (सर्वशः संहरते)
  3. तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता (भवति)

(1) The word इव in the first clause denotes the use of simile as the figure of speech. In simile उपमालङ्कारः, there is one to one correspondence between two entities. I am using the phrase ‘two entities’, with the idea that there is one entity उपमान, with which another उपमेय is compared. When there is comparison between two entities, there are specific characteristics or attributes of the two entities, which are put in comparison with each other. The specific characteristics or attributes, which are being considered for comparison can then be called as उपमानसर्वस्वम् and उपमेयसर्वस्वम्. One can do well to tabulate these, so that one can see the one-to-one correspondence in complete detail.

उपमानसर्वस्वम् कूर्मः ? अङ्गानि संहरते
उपमेयसर्वस्वम् अयम् इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः इन्द्रियाणि संहरते

I have put a question mark for one item in उपमानसर्वस्वम् , because one needs to deliberate, what aspect of उपमानसर्वस्वम् compares well with इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः in उपमेयसर्वस्वम्.

As can be seen in the picture below, a tortoise retracts its mouth from ‘what all is around it’.

 tortoise with mouth outtortoise retracts its mouth

There are surroundings everywhere. One can never be without surroundings. The surroundings cannot be driven away. What one can best do is to withdraw oneself, internalize oneself, as a tortoise does.

It is natural or inherent for the organs of sense to be enticed or distracted by the ‘surroundings’. Sweet scent or beautiful design on a butterfly or whispering woods or roar of a waterfall or soft touch of a child or sweet taste of honey are all characteristics of respective surroundings. शब्द, रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श are इन्द्रियार्थ-s of five sense-organs. One cannot put them away. But one can withdraw one’s involvement by internalizing oneself.

It comes to mind that there cannot be any simile other than that of a tortoise, where the concept is of retracting one’s organs. One may however ask, whether it is possible for humans to withdraw one’s organs, same way as is possible for the tortoise. The answer should be ‘yes’, not because it is said so in this श्लोक, but by realizing that humans are gifted with superior intelligence than the tortoise. So humans should apply their intelligence प्रज्ञा to do that, what a tortoise does by virtue of its special faculty.

At the question-mark item inउपमानसर्वस्वम् I would put the word आसमन्तात् meaning ‘surroundings’

(2) There are 3 lines in गीता, which are repeated verbatim. The second line of this श्लोक is one such line. It is repeated in श्लोक 2-68.

I would think that such lines, which are repeated verbatim are all that important, meaning that they have great import.

Whereas every chapter of गीता has a title connoting one or another योग, where the word योग means ‘joining’. This line, specifying withdrawing the organs is actually speaking of वियोग i.e. separation.

So to understand योग, one needs to not only understand but also exercise वियोग.

(3) This line speaks of इन्द्रियाणि in general, not just ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि. In (1) I mentioned शब्द, रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श just to explain इन्द्रियार्थ-s of ज्ञानेन्द्रिय-s. But कर्मेन्द्रियाणि also have इन्द्रियार्थ-s. To withdraw कर्मेन्द्रियाणि from their इन्द्रियार्थ-s is possibly best connoted by the three monkeys of महात्मा गांधी, rather four.

The शान्तिमन्त्र of गणपत्यथर्वशीर्षम् speaks not of withdrawing, but of regulating what grade of इन्द्रियार्थ-s the इन्द्रिय-s should indulge into, when it says ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः | ॐ भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः |

In भावार्थदीपिका Saint ज्ञानेश्वर uses a beautiful phrase शब्देवीण संवादु (= dialog without utterance). There is somewhat similar mention in a Kannada lullaby for the Lord. It says मातविद्दु मातुविलधांगिरबेकु | मातीन मजकूर तिळदीरबेकु | (meaning – Even if you have speech, stay dumb. Yet you should have grasped the meaning of the (holy) word.)

One can appreciate that meaning of इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः इन्द्रियाणि सर्वशः संहरते is very subtle and deep and to put it in practice or to acquire such capability is so very challenging.

(3) There are some interesting undertones even in the grammar in the श्लोक. Although I gave in the beginning the अन्वय as three clauses, the relational conjunctions make an interesting study.

(3-1) The main clause is तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता. There is no verb here. Usually one would take अस्ति or भवति as the implicit verb. I would rather take उच्यते to be the implicit verb. Literal meaning of this verb उच्यते is “is called as”. So the main clause becomes तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता उच्यते. तस्य his प्रज्ञा intellect उच्यते is called as प्रतिष्ठिता.

(3-1-1) I have not interpreted the word प्रतिष्ठिता, because it merits some deliberation. The word is used in most Indian languages in such contexts as – He is a प्रतिष्ठित member in the society. In such context प्रतिष्ठित means ‘one with status’ or ‘elite’. In the same vein, प्रतिष्ठिता प्रज्ञा can be interpreted as ‘elite intellect’ or an intellect with a status. An elitist status is a status on a high pedestal, honorable. Certainly such प्रज्ञा, as specified in the sub-clause(s), would be regarded as प्रतिष्ठिता highly respectable.

(3-1-2) Grammatically प्रतिष्ठिता is feminine adjective in past tense and with passive voice inbuilt, derived from प्रति + स्था. The prefix प्रति seems to bring the meaning of ‘elitist status’. By that, meaning of प्रतिष्ठिता can be taken as ‘taken to an elitist status’. Rather this word प्रतिष्ठिता suggests one meaning of the prefix प्रति to be ‘at or unto an elevated or elite status’.

(3-2) The sub-clause कूर्मः अङ्गानि संहरते इव has the relational conjunction इव which is combination of the English pair ‘so … as’ or Sanskrit pair यथा … तथा.

(3-3) The other subclause यदा अयम् इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः इन्द्रियाणि सर्वशः संहरते has the relational conjunction यदा. Usually it pairs with तदा. Although the pair यदा-तदा has time domain for the relation of ‘when … then’, in Sanskrit, its usage for the relation ‘if-then’ is not uncommon.

(3-3-1) Although there is no तदा explicit here, one should take it as implicit in यदा.

(3-4) Between अयम् in यदा अयं संहरते and तस्य in तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता, there is also an adjectival relationship. So the subclause यदा अयं संहरते has dual relationship with the main clause तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता.

(3-4-1) One is adjectival relationship between अयम् and तस्य.

(3-4-2) Another is adverbial relationship by virtue of यदा. This adverbial relationship is both of time-domain and of condition-domain, which is also so, in the computer-programming construct of ‘if-then’.

(4) The word अयम् is masculine first case singular of the pronoun इदम्, which means someone nearby. This श्लोक is by श्रीकृष्णभगवान्. In using the word अयम्, He is referring to someone nearby to Him and hence someone dear to Him. But in the main clause, the corresponding word is तस्य, (masculine), sixth case singular of the pronoun तत्, which signals ‘he’. Does this suggest that one, whose प्रज्ञा is प्रतिष्ठिता, becomes He ? Is this some suggestion of the महावाक्य Great Quote तत्त्वमसि ? Is this the reason why the second line has all such great import, that it is repeated verbatim in 2-68 ?

(5) One should not miss the significance of the word सर्वशः. Retraction should apply to all इन्द्रिय-s, without exception. The sense of स्पर्श touch is इन्द्रियार्थ of इन्द्रिय त्वच् the skin. This also is to be retracted !!

(5-1) Bio-sketch of कर्ण makes an interesting study in the context of retraction of the sense of स्पर्श touch, the इन्द्रियार्थ of इन्द्रिय त्वच् the skin.

(5-1-1) कर्ण was born with a special skin, which was his great defense also. But having given his word, he did not hesitate to donate that skin and make himself devoid of his defense.

(5-1-2) He was comforting his गुरु परशुराम, from whom he acquired पाशुपतास्र. When he was doing his service, a bee not only stung him on his lap, but even started extracting his blood. कर्ण unflinchingly continued his service. Is this not an example of making oneself unmindful of what was happening to the skin, rather so retracting the skin that one is devoid of the sense of touch ? The entire epic महाभारतम् is great, because biosketches of different characters bring forth and evidence very challenging concepts such as इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः संहरते !!!

शुभमस्तु |

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