Epilogue of Chapter 2

Epilogue of Chapter 2 गीतायाः द्वितीयाध्यायस्य समापनवाक्यम्

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गितासु उपनिषत्सु

ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे


सांख्ययोगो नाम

द्बितीयोऽध्यायः |

There is such समापनवाक्यम् at the end of every अध्याय. It was there at the end of the first अध्याय also. There are only two changes in it from chapter to chapter. The title is new. Also the title number is appropriate. Here the title is सांख्ययोग and the serial number is द्वितीय.

Since the rest words are all same, they were discussed when studying the epilogue of chapter 1 at https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/1-epilogue/

It would be good to discuss here the title of this chapter सांख्ययोग.

This word सांख्य has already been there in 2-39. See https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/2-39/

Apart from what was detailed there, etymology of the word सांख्य can be traced from

  1. धातुः सम् + ख्या 2 उ. | ख्या प्रकथने – To elaborate, to explain
    1. The prefix सम् has many shades of meaning. In Apte’s dictionary it is detailed “.. सम् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता &c, तस्यामात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty. -2 As prefixed to nouns to form comp. it means ‘like, same, similar’, as in समर्थ. -3 Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’, as in समक्ष. -4 In the Vedas it is sometimes used as a separable preposition (with instr.). ..”
    2. So सांख्य becomes such narration, explanation, which is thorough, perfect, most appropriate.
  2. Apte’s dictionary lists संख्या as a धातुः by itself. However it is listed with the same गण, 2 P. The idea behind listing both ख्या  and संख्या is good, because such listing would give specific meaning a धातु gets, due to a specific prefix. In the dictionary, “.. संख्या 2 P. 1 To count, enumerate, calculate, sum up; तावन्त्येव च तत्त्वानि सांख्यैः संख्यायन्ते Ś. B. -2 Ved. To appear along with, be connected with… “

As was detailed in the epilogue of first chapter, अन्वयः of सांख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः could be rather put as नाम, (अयं) द्वितीयोऽध्यायः सांख्ययोगः. Truly this second chapter is सांख्ययोगः. That leads one to check what all is elaborated in this chapter conforms to its title सांख्ययोग. That is, we should check

  1. whether it appeals to be a good gist drawn from सांख्य-philosophy. To do this check, one needs to know, what the सांख्य-philosophy is. As stated at study of 2-39, in Apte’s dictionary “… सांख्यः अथवा सांख्यम् – Name of one of the systems of Hindu philosophy, attributed to sage कपिल; This philosophy is so called because it ‘enumerates’ 25 तत्त्व-s or true principles; Its chief object is to effect emancipation of the twenty-fifth तत्त्व i.e. the पुरुष or soul from the bondage of worldly existence – the fetters of phenomenal creation – by conveying a correct knowledge of the twenty-four other तत्त्व-s and by properly discriminating the soul from them. It regards the whole universe to be a development of an inanimate principle called प्रकृति while the पुरुष is altogether passive and simply a looker on. It agrees with the वेदान्त in being synthetical and so differs from the analytical न्याय and वैशेषिक; but its great point of divergence from वेदान्त is that it maintains two principles, which वेदान्त denies, and that it does not admit God as the creator and controller of the universe, which वेदान्त affirms…”
  2. whether it is such narration, explanation, which is सांख्यः अथवा सांख्यम् thorough, perfect, most appropriate.
    1. In गीतादर्शन Osho is said to have proposed that, what all was stated by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was the thorough, perfect, most appropriate answer to all doubts of अर्जुन.
    2. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् did that right away. Osho is said to have likened this to a strategy, which has no motives for self-benefit.
      1. To have motives of self-benefits is attitude of shop-keepers or of a businessman. These persons know what will sell easily. So they would not present to the customer that, what is the best answer to the customer’s interest. They will first present those items, which are difficult to sell.

(3) We can also check whether there is enumeration, which is an important shade of meaning of संख्या as a धातुः or as a स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम meaning ‘number’.

  • Enumeration brings to mind that there are four strategies to change the thinking of a person, साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद, साम to bring the thinking to some synchronizing, दाम to emphasize positive effects, दण्ड to threaten of ill-effects, भेद to challenge and question veracity of the person’s line of thinking. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् had it in mind that the thinking of अर्जुन should change. We can say that श्रीकृष्णभगवान् employed all the four strategies.
    • In saying अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वम् (2-11) it was भेद strategy.
    • In saying अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् (2-26) it was साम strategy.
    • In saying अथ चेत्वमिमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि पापमवाप्स्यसि (2-33), अकीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति (2-34), लाघवं यास्यसि (2-36), it was दण्ड strategy.
    • In saying हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम्. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् (2-37) explained that either way the result will be beneficial. This was दाम strategy.

(4) Having delineated साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद up to 2-37, in 2-38 itself श्रीकृष्णभगवान् says ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि and supplements it तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् in 2-50.

  • If अर्जुन would have accepted ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व (2-38), there was no need for all further 34 श्लोक-s of द्वितीयोऽध्यायः itself and of course nothing further of all the rest of गीता.
  • Possibly श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was alongside of narration, doing mind-reading and face-reading and reading of body-language of अर्जुन continuously and checking whether अर्जुन was getting motivated enough to fight the war.
  • श्रीकृष्णभगवान् continued further after 2-38, right up to 2-53 तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि… because he did not see अर्जुन, ready for war.
  • What happened by the narration up to 2-53 was that अर्जुन’s inquisitiveness had been kindled, for him to ask स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा ..

(5) Even if we would not have studied सांख्यम् of sage कपिल, we can surmise that all arguments of साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद-नीति-s are based on सांख्यम् and even the explanations from 2-55 to 2-72 in answer to (2-54) स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा are based on सांख्यम्. That then becomes justification for the title of the chapter being सांख्ययोग.

  1. It would become an interesting exercise to enlist which concepts of सांख्यम् seem to have been delineated in 2-11 to 2-72.
    1. We all live many lives – अहं न आसम् (एवं) तु न, वयं सर्वे अतःपरं न भविष्यामः एवमपि न (2-12)
    2. As there are the phases of childhood, youth and old age in the current body-form, there is also transition into another body. One should not get moved at that. (2-13). The ‘embodied’ does give away a useless body and enters a new one. (2-22). Life is only the manifest phase of a being. Being also has a beginning, which is merely a non-manifest phase. Death is also nothing but a non-manifest phase. (2-28) – यथा अस्मिन् देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा, तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः | धीरः तत्र न मुह्यति (2-13) | देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहाय अन्यानि नवानि संयाति (2-22) | भूतानि अव्यक्तादीनि व्यक्तमध्यानि अव्यक्तनिधनानि एव (2-28) |
    3. The one, that created all this (world) is everlasting. – येन इदं सर्वं ततं तत्तु अविनाशि (इति) विद्धि | (2-17)
    4. The soul is neither born nor does it die. अयं (आत्मा) कदाचित् न जायते म्रियते वा (2-20)
    5. It does not become graceful to be diswayed from appropriate task. – स्वधर्मं च आवेक्ष्य विकम्पितुं न अर्हसि (2-31)
    6. For क्षत्रिय-s such war is door to heaven, which has opened automatically – क्षत्रियाः ईदृशं युद्धं यदृच्छया अपावृतं स्वर्गद्वारम् (इव) लभन्ते (2-32)
    7. There is no sin in fighting with the resolve of taking happiness or sorrow, gain or loss, victory or defeat as equal. Such intellect is only steadfastness. – सुखदुःखे लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ समे कृत्वा युद्धाय युज्यस्व | एवं पापं न अवाप्स्यसि (2-38) एषा सांख्ये योगे अभिहिता बुद्धिः (2-39)
    8. By such intellect one relinquishes bondage with action. – (अनया) बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि (2-39)
    9. Such intellect freed from fruits or results of actions frees one from the cycle of birth and death. – बुद्धियुक्ताः कर्मजं फलं त्यक्त्वा हि जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः (भवन्ति) | अनामयं पदं गच्छन्ति | (2-51)
    10. One, who is able to make his organs withdrawn from their subjects of interest, has his intellect steadfast. – यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता (2-68)
    11. He who has renounced all desires and expectations, all attachments and associations, all doership, and is yet full of action, attains peace. Such state is the state as of ब्रह्मन्. Having attained such state, one, who carries it until the last breath merges with the ब्रह्मन्. – यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निःस्पृहः निर्ममः निरहङ्कारः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः | (यः) एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति, (सः) अन्तकालेऽपि अस्यां स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति | (2-71, 2-72)

Does this appeal to be a good summary of सांख्यम् as delineated in this chapter ?

शुभमस्तु !





Studying gItA and Sanskrit together Chapter 2, Verses 70 to 72

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकाः ७०, ७१, ७२)

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठम् |

समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् |

तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे |

स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ||२-७०||

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान् पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः |

निर्ममो निरहंकारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ||२-७१||

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति |

स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ||२-७२||


आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् ।

समुद्रम् आपः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत् कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे ।

सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति न कामकामी ||२-७०||

विहाय कामान् यः सर्वान् पुमान् चरति निःस्पृहः |

निर्ममः निरहंकारः सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति ||२-७१||

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ न एनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति |

स्थित्वा अस्याम् अन्तकाले अपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति ||२-७२||

अन्वयाः –

  1. यद्वत् आपः आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम् प्रविशन्ति
  2. तद्वत् सर्वे कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति
  3. सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति
  4. कामकामी (शान्तिम्) न (आप्नोति) |
  5. यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति
  6. सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति |
  7. पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति)
  8. एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति |
  9. अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति |

अन्वेषणमभ्यासश्च Study and deliberation –

(1) यद्वत् आपः आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम् प्रविशन्ति तद्वत् सर्वे कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति –

  • Some words make an interesting study –
  • यद्वत् … तद्वत् = यथा … तथा
  • आपः – अप् f. [आप् -क्विप् -ह्रस्वश्च Uṇ.2.58] (Declined in classical language only in pl.; आपः, अपः, अद्भिः, अद्भ्यः, अपाम् and अप्सु, but in singular and pl. in Veda) 1 Water (regarded in Ved. as sacred divinities, आपो देवीः); खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिः Ms.2.6. Water is generally considered to be the first of the 5 elements of creation, as in अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् Ms.1.8; या सृष्टिः स्रष्टुराद्या Ś.1.1; but in Ms.1.78 it is said to have been created from ज्योतिस् or तेजस् after मनस्, आकाश, वायु and ज्योतिस् or अग्नि; ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः । अद्भयो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः ॥
  • आपूर्यमाणम् – The शानच्-प्रत्यय मान/माण is obvious here. Hence धातु is आत्मनेपदी and can be with passive voice.
    • पॄ 3, 9 P. (पिपर्ति, पृणाति, पपार, अपारीत्, परि-री-ष्यति, परि-री-तुम्, पूर्ण; pass. पूर्यते; caus. पूरयति-ते; desid. पिपरि- री-षति, पुपूर्षति) 1 To fill, fill up, complete. -2 To fulfil, gratify (as hopes &c.).   
    • पूर् I. 4 Ā (पूर्यते, पूर्ण) 1 To fill, fill out (allied in this sense with pass. of पॄ q. v.). -2 To please, satisfy. -II. 1 U. (पूरयति-ते, पूरित; strictly the Caus. of पॄ q. v.) 1 To fill; को न याति वशं लोके मुखे पिण्डेन पूरितः Bh.2.118; Śi.9.64;16.34.
    • आपूर्यमाणम् = Because it is adjectival of समुद्र it is पुँल्लिङ्गि द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of आपूर्यमाण
    • आपूर्यमाणः समुद्रः – Sea being filled up. The prefix आ lends an interesting shade of meaning as ‘sea, ever being filled up’. Note the passive voice.
  • अचलप्रतिष्ठम् – This also is adjectival of समुद्र Hence पुँल्लिङ्गि द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of अचलप्रतिष्ठ. In शाङ्करभाष्यम् “अचलतया प्रतिष्ठा स्थितिः यस्य तम्” अचलप्रतिष्ठम्. One can decipher this word अचलप्रतिष्ठ also as अचला प्रतिष्ठा यस्य सः अचलप्रतिष्ठः or अचलं प्रतिष्ठः इति अचलप्रतिष्ठः
    • The deciphering as अचलतया प्रतिष्ठा स्थितिः यस्य तम् imports an additional word स्थितिः. Hence there is some style of मध्यमपदलोप.  Actually both words प्रतिष्ठा and स्थितिः are from धातुः स्था. So why import an additional word ?
    • The deciphering as अचला प्रतिष्ठा यस्य सः अचलप्रतिष्ठः has the style of बहुव्रीहिः
    • The deciphering as अचलं प्रतिष्ठः इति अचलप्रतिष्ठः has the style of अव्ययीभावान्वितः कर्मधारयः Here प्रतिष्ठः is to be understood to be in the style of उपस्थः in रथोपस्थः (रथं उपस्थः इति रथोपस्थः) See श्लोकः 1-43.
    • अचलप्रतिष्ठम् = One who has attained undisturbable state.
  • समुद्रम् – समुद्रः इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • समुद्र a. Sealed, bearing a seal, stamped; समुद्रो लेखः; समुद्रे नाप्नुयात् किंचिद्यदि तस्मान्न संहरेत् Ms.8.188. -द्रः 1 The sea, ocean.
  • There is a simile here and merits a comparative study between उपमानसर्वस्वम् and उपमेयसर्वस्वम्
उपमानाः यद्वत् आपः अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम्   आपूर्यमाणम् प्रविशन्ति
उपमेयाः तद्वत् कामाः (अचलप्रतिष्ठम्) यम् (आपूर्यमाणम्) प्रविशन्ति
  • To make उपमेयसर्वस्वम् to match with उपमानसर्वस्वम्, one needs to presume अचलप्रतिष्ठम् and आपूर्यमाणम् to be implicit in उपमेयसर्वस्वम् also.
  • Just as waters keep flowing into the sea, but the inflows (from rivers) make no difference to the sea, because it is always in an undisturbable state, in the same way, for one, who has attained an undisturbable state, wishes may enter his mind, but would make no difference to him.

(2) सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति | कामकामी (शान्तिम्) न (आप्नोति) | – The word worth studying is कामकामी.

  • It is a compound word to be deciphered as कामानां कामी इति कामकामी (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • कामः [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; oft. used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; Ms.2.94. -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. Kaṭh. Up.1.25. -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम.
  • कामी = कामः अस्य अस्ति or कामाः अस्य सन्ति इति कामी (प्रातिपदिकम् कामिन्)
    • धातुः कम् + कृत्प्रत्ययः घिनुण् = कामिन् | प्रत्ययः घिनुण् तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु (पा. 3-2-134)
    • कम् 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त) 1 To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; कन्ये कामयमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1. -2 To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्कष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82.
  • कामकामी = indulging only in desires.

(3) यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | – First, study of some interesting words.

  • (3-1) The word पुमान् is प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पुंस्. We had पुंसः (षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम्) in ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः (2-62).
  • (3-2) निर्ममः – निर्गतः ममः यस्मात् सः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • ममः = मम इति भावः | This is तद्धितम् भाववाचकं नाम from मम |
  • (3-3) निरहङ्कारः – अहं कारः इति भावः अहङ्कारः | Thought that I am the doer is अहङ्कारः ego | निर्गतः अहङ्कारः यस्मात् सः निरहङ्कारः (बहुव्रीहिः) | निरहङ्कारः = devoid of ego.
  • (3-4) निःस्पृहः – a. 1 Free from desire, not longing for. -2 Satisfied, content. -3 Indifferent; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः Ki.2.5.
    • निःस्पृहस्य तृणं जगत्
    • नि + स्पृह् इति धातुः स्पृह् 10 U. (स्पृहयति-ते) To wish, long for, desire for, yearn, envy (with dat.); स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7; तपःक्लेशायापि स्पृहयन्ति K.; न मैथिलेयः स्पृहयांबभूव भर्त्रे दिवो नाप्यलकेश्वराय R.16.42; Bh.2.45.
  • (3-5) निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः connote threefold mental discipline of being निर्ममः having no attachments निरहंकारः having no ego and निःस्पृहः having no desires.
  • (3-6) यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | = He, who gives up all desires and conducts himself having no attachments, having no ego and having no desires, attains (everlasting) peace.

(4) पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति) | एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति | अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति | – Study of specific words and deliberations

  • (4-1) ब्राह्मी = ब्रह्मणः इयम् इति ब्राह्मी | rather ब्रह्ममयी इति ब्राह्मी | or ब्रह्मज्ञानेन इयमिति ब्राह्मी |
    • ब्राह्मी स्थितिः = ब्रह्मावस्था = state of being one with the “genesis”, being knowledgeable and conscious of the fundamental element, of the fundamental reality.
    • I don’t think this can be truly put in the most correct words.
  • (4-2) निर्वाण p. p. 1 Blown or put out, extinguished (as a lamp or fire); निर्वाणवैरदहनाः प्रशमादरीणाम् Ve.1.7; Ku.2.23. -2 Lost, disappeared. -3 Dead, deceased. -4 Liberated from existence. -5 Set (as the sun). -6 Calmed, quieted. -7 Plunged. -णम् 1 Extinction; अपि निर्वाणमायाति नानलो याति शीतताम् H.1.131; शनैर्निर्वाणमाप्नोति निरिन्धन इवानलः Mb. -2 Vanishing from sight, dis- appearance. -3 Dissolution, death. -4 Final liberation or emancipation from matter and reunion with the Supreme Spirit, eternal bliss; निर्वाणं नाधिगच्छेयुर्जीवेयुः पशु- जीविकाम् Mb.3.31,26; निर्वाणमपि मन्ये$हमन्तरायं जयश्रियः Ki.11.69; R.12.1. -5 (With Buddhists) Absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual or worldly existence. -6 Perfect and perpetual calm, repose; निर्वाणं समुपगमेन यच्छते ते (नमः) Ki.18.39. -7 Complete satisfaction or pleasure, supreme bliss, highest felicity; स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतो$धिगच्छति Bg.5.24; अये लब्धं नेत्रनिर्वाणम् Ś.3; M.3.1; Śi.4.23; V.3.21. -8 Cessation, desisting. -9 Vacuity. -1 Union, associa- tion, confluence. -11 The bathing of an elephant; as in अनिर्वाण R.1.71. -12 Instruction in sciences. -13 Finis, completion; प्राप्य संकल्पनिर्वाणं नातिप्रीतो$भ्यगात् पुरम् Bhāg.4.9.27.
    • धातुः निर्वा – निर्वा 2 P. 1 To blow. -2 To be cooled, be cool or assuaged (fig. also); वपुर्जलाद्रापवनैर्न निर्ववौ Śi.1.65; त्वयि दृष्ट एव तस्या निर्वाति मनो मनोभवज्वलितम् Subhāṣ. -3 To blow out, be extinguished, be extinct; निर्वाणदीपे किमु तैलदानम् Subhāṣ.; निर्वाणभूयिष्ठमथास्य वीर्यं संधुक्षयन्तीव वपुर्गुणेन Ku.3.52; Śi.14.85; Mu.3.28. -Caus. (निर्वापयति) 1 To blow or put out, extinguish, destroy, kill; शशाक निर्वापयितुं न वासवः R.3.58. -2 To cool, alleviate the heat of, act as a refrigerant; सखि अन्यादृश एव ते$द्य निर्वा- पयति शरीरस्पर्शः Māl.6; Ratn.3.11; R.19.56. -3 To gratify, soothe, comfort; निर्वाप्य प्रियसंदेशैः सीतामक्षवधोद्धतः R.12.63.
    • वा – I. 2 P. (वाति, वात or वान) 1 To blow; वाता वाता दिशि दिशि न वा सप्तधा सप्तभिन्नाः Ve.3.6; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः R.3.14; Me.44; Bk.7.1;8.61. -2 To go, move. -3 To strike, hurt, injure. -4 To emit an odour, be diffused. -5 To smell. -Caus. (वापयति-ते) 1 To cause to blow. -2 (वाजयति-ते) To shake. -With आ to blow; बद्धां बद्धां भित्तिशङ्काममुष्मिन्नावानावान्मातरिश्वा निहन्ति Ki.5.36; Bk. 14.97. -प्र, वि to blow; वायुर्विवाति हृदयानि हरन्नराणाम् Ṛs. 6.23. -II. 4 P. (वायति) 1 To be dried up, to dry. -2 To be extinguished. -III. 1 U. (वापयति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To be happy. -3 To worship, reverence.
  • (4-3) ऋच्छति – This form is related to different धातु-s
    • ऋ I. 1 P. [ऋच्छति, आर, आर्षीत्, अरिष्यति, ऋत; caus. अर्पयति; desid. अरिरिषति; अरार्यते reduplicative (अत्यर्थमृच्छति) cf. किमभीरुररार्यसे Bk.4.21.] 1 To go, move; अम्भच्छा- यामच्छामृच्छति Śi.4.44. यथाश्मानमृत्वा लोष्ठो विध्वंसेत Bṛi. Up.1.3.7. -2 To rise, tend towards. -II. 3 P. (इयर्ति, आरत्, ऋत Mostly used in the Veda.) 1 To go. -2 To move, shake. -3 To obtain, gain, acquire, reach, meet with. -4 To move, excite, raise (as voice, words &c.) वाचमियर्ति. -5 To display. -III. 5 P. (ऋणोति, ऋण) 1 To injure, hurt. -2 To attack. -Caus. (अर्पयति, आर्पिपत्, अर्पित) 1 To throw, cast, fling; fix or implant in; हृदि शल्यमर्पितम् R.8.87. -2 To put or place on, fix upon, direct or cast towards (as the eye &c.); वामत्रकोष्ठार्पितहेमवेत्रः Ku.3.41; Ś.6.5,17,3.26; R.17. 79; Ś.6.8; Bk.5.9; Ku.6.11; R.15.77; Bg.8.7, 12.14; करपल्लवार्पित Śi.9.54. -3 To place in, insert, give, set or place; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74,78; चित्रार्पिताम् Ś.6.15 drawn in a picture; R.2.31; द्वारदेशे Amaru. 62; V.4.35; Mu.7.6; Bh.3.18; लोकोत्तरं चरितमर्पयति प्रतिष्ठाम् R. G. -4 To hand or make over; give to, give in charge of, consign, deliver; इति सूतस्याभरणान्यर्पयति Ś.1,4. 19; Bk.8.118; Y.2.65. -5To give up, sacrifice (as the inherent sense); अत्र कलिङ्गगङ्गाशब्दौ आत्मानमर्पयतः S. D.2. -6 To give back, restore; अर्पितप्रकृतिकान्तिभिर्मुखैः R.19.1; Bk.15.16; Amaru.94; Ms.8.191; Y.2. 169. -7To pierce through, perforate, penetrate.
    • ऋच्छ् 6 P. (ऋच्छति, आर्च्छीत्, आनर्च्छ, अर्च्छितुम्). 1 To become hard or stiff. -2 To go, move; -3 1 To fail in faculties.
    • The meaning “To go, move” is common to both ऋ 1 P. and ऋच्छ् 6 P.
  • (4-4) पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति) | एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति | अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति | = पार्थ This state is what has been detailed in previous verses. Having attained this state, one does not lose balance. Being in this state at the time of last breath, one may as well attain going/moving unto the ब्रह्मन्.

शुभमस्तु !!



Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 69)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ६९)

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी |

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ||२-६९||

There is only one संधि ! पश्यतो मुनेः = पश्यतः मुनेः |

अन्वयः –

  1. या सर्वभूतानां निशा (भवति) तस्यां संयमी जागर्ति |
  2. यस्यां (सर्वाणि) भूतानि जाग्रति सा पश्यतः मुनेः निशा (भवति) |

अन्वेषणमभ्यासश्च –

(1) Most interesting word appeals to be निशा. Most commonly understood meaning of निशा is ‘night’. Apte’s dictionary gives quite some interesting insight.

  • (1-1) निशा [नितरां श्यति तनूकरोति व्यापारान् शोक Tv.] 1 Night या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी Bg.2.69. Note Tv is abbreviation for तारानाथवाचस्पत्यम्.
    • (1-1-1) Among other meanings of निशा – A collective name for the zodiacal signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Sagittarius, and Capricorn.
      • Why should collective name of these zodiacal signs मेषः, वृषभः, मिथुनः, कर्कः, धनुः मकरः have been निशा ?
      • Other signs सिंहः, कन्या, वृश्चिकः, तुला, कुम्भः मीनः should become another group.
      • In astrology zodiacal signs seem to be also grouped by elements they are related to – Fire: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Earth: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn Air: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius Water: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces
  • (1-2) In the phrase नितरां श्यति, नितरां is explanation of the prefix नि and श्यति is explanation of शा, since it is derived from धातुः शी 2 Ā. (शेते, शयित; pass. शय्यते; desid. (शिशयिषते) 1 To lie, lie down, recline, rest; इतश्च शरणार्थिनः शिखरिणां गणाः शेरते Bh.2.76. -2 To sleep (fig. also); किं निःशङ्कं शेषे शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः । अथवा सुखं शयीथा निकटे जागर्ति जाह्नवी जननी Bv.4.3; Bh.3.79; Ku.5.12. -3 To rest, repose. -Caus. (शाययति-ते) -1 To cause to sleep or lie down; पार्श्वे शायय रावणम् Bk.8.83. -2 To allow to rest or repose.
  • (1-3) Apte’s dictionary also details निश् f. (This word is optionally substituted for निशा in all cases after acc. dual; it has no forms for the first five inflections). 1 Night.  
  • (1-4) Apte’s dictionary also details धातुः निश् 1 P. (नेशति) To lose oneself in abstract meditation, meditate upon.
  • (1-6) Extended meaning of निशा can be taken as state of being unaware .

(2) Opposite of being unaware is being aware, alert. For this there are two verbs जागर्ति and जाग्रति, present tense, singular and plural forms of धातुः जागृ

  • जागृ 2 P. (जागर्ति, जागरित) 1 To be awake, be watchful or attentive (fig. also); सो$पसर्पैर्जजागार यथाकालं स्वपन्नपि R.17.51; गुरौ षाङ्गुण्यचिन्तायामार्ये चार्ये च जाग्रति Mu.7.13; to sit up during the night; या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी Bg.2.69. -2 To be roused from sleep, awake. -3 To foresee, be provident.

(3) But what is it that a संयमी one who is restrained जागर्ति is aware or alert about, when सर्वभूतानां निशा (भवति) all others are unaware of or are oblivious to ?

  • And what is it that (सर्वाणि) भूतानि are aware of, when they जाग्रति ?

(4) Although I have made it as questions, the अन्वय has no questions. There we have two very affirmative statements. In his discourses Osho is said to have put these statements as “.. O Arjuna, what is a dark night for all beings, is wakefulness for those who have attained godliness. All those who are destructive, who live in ephemeral worldly happiness, call it wakefulness. But, for the wise man, who knows, it is a dark night. ..”

(5) Obviously the two concepts of जागृति wakefulness, and of निशा un-wakefulness are for common people related to being happy जागृति time to enjoy, otherwise, being not happy निशा.

(6) The wise remains संयमी in self-control in instances, which for common people are not instances of being happy. When common people are awake, enjoying, the wise, the मुनिः prefers to be oblivious of them, even when he is पश्यन् seeing.

(7) पश्यतः मुनेः is an interesting phrase. It is in the style of सच्छष्ठी, with षष्ठी विभक्ति of both the doer and his action. The action in सच्छष्ठी, here, the action पश्यतः i.e. दृष्टिः, दर्शनम् is simultaneous with the other action or state निशा.

(8) If the wise is either जाग्रति or पश्यन् that means he is always alert and equanimous. संत रामदास (१६०६ – १६८२) puts this very beautifully अखंड सावधान असावें | दुश्चित्त कदापि नसावें | अंतरीं असो द्यावें | समाधान || Be alert all the time. Let the mind be never disturbed. The inner self should be at peace.

(9) What गीता speaks of संयमी and मुनि being always alert, संत रामदास advocates, that yourself be that way. That is precisely the way to read and understand गीता. Place yourself in Arjuna’s position. Then every statement, that is told by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् is not just what He said to अर्जुन but it is in fact for you. That way, may it soak down into your own intellect. Then keep checking how good your own conduct conforms and whether it deviates. Keep controlling the conduct to eliminate deviations.

(10) That brings to mind an incident from सच्चरितम् of Sai Baba of Shirdi. A few Muslim ladies had come to have blessings of Sai Baba. Madhavrao Deshpande, sort of personal secretary of Sai Baba was there. Also Nanasaheb Chandorkar, who for Sai Baba, say, for श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was as good as अर्जुन. Being at the feet of Sai Baba the ladies lifted their veils. One lady’s beauty was beyond description. Sai Baba could assess what had happened to Nanasaheb, even without looking at him. After the ladies left Baba just said बनता, बनता, बनेल ! Literal meaning, “It will become by keeping on becoming.” What Sai Baba implied was “control on the mind will become, but only as it keeps becoming.” That beauty should have been realized as निशा by Nanasaheb and he should not have allowed his mind to be disturbed by it. Disturbance of the mind is that very subtle, right ? And then control of the mind संयम is so very challenging ! Be alert all the time !

(11) उत्तिष्ठत, जाग्रत, प्राप्यवरान्निबोधत (कठोपनिषत्)

  • उत्तिष्ठत Get up, Shake away all cloudings, all confusions, all negativities, what you have covered yourself with
  • जाग्रत awaken, be alert, stay alert
  • प्राप्यवरान्निबोधत know, cultivate and imbibe the right commands !

शुभमस्तु !!



Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verses 64 to 68)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verses 64 to 68)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ पञ्च श्लोकाः ६४-तः ६८-पर्यन्ताः)

I would like to discuss the five verses in two steps, verses 64 and 65 first and verses 66 to 68 next. The reason or logic will become clear as the discussion proceeds.

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् |

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ||२-६४||

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते |

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ||२-६५||

पदच्छेदैः –

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैः चरन् |

आत्मवश्यैः विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति ||२-६४||

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिः अस्य उपजायते |

प्रसन्नचेतसः हि आशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ||२-६५||

अन्वयः –

  1. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः आत्मवश्यैः इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन् विधेयात्मा तु प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति |
  2. प्रसादे अस्य सर्वदुःखानां हानिः उपजायते |
  3. हि प्रसन्नचेतसः बुद्धिः आशु पर्यवतिष्ठते |

अन्वेषणम् (Deliberation) –

(1) In most books on GitA, one finds a positive tone in the interpretation of these Shlokas.

  • In a book GitA-Darshan based on discourses by Osho, the interpretation reads –
    • of shloka 64 as “.. An individual enjoys freedom, when his inner wisdom does not include attraction-aversion; he enjoys worldly objects, but he is not at the mercy of his own senses. That is to say, he rejoices, as he has attained inner wisdom. ..”
    • And for shloka 65 “.. In this clarity, there is absence of all suffering; and the individual, whose consciousness is blissful, swiftly and easily moves into a state of stillness. ..”
  • शाङ्करभाष्ये –
    • रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः (रागश्च द्वेषश्च रागद्वेषौ | तत्पुरःसरा हि इन्द्रियाणां प्रवृत्तिः स्वाभाविकी | तत्र यो मुमुक्षुः भवति स ताभ्यां वियुक्तैः श्रोत्रादिभिः) इन्द्रियैः विषयान् (अवर्जनीयान्) चरन् (उपलभमाना) आत्मवश्यैः (आत्मनो वश्यानि, वशीभूतानि, तैः आत्मवश्यैः) विधेयात्मा (इच्छातो विधेयः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य सः अयं) प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति | (प्रसादः प्रसन्नता स्वास्थ्यम्)
    • प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां (आध्यात्मकादीनां) हानिः (विनाशः) अस्य (यतेः) उपजायते | (किं च) प्रसन्नचेतसः (स्वस्थान्तःकरणस्य) हि (यस्मात्) आशु (शीघ्रं) बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते | (आकाशम् इव, परि, समन्तात्, अवतिष्ठते, आत्मस्वरूपेण एव निश्चलीभवति इत्यर्थः)

(2) I am not convinced of these interpretations, primarily because they run contrary to the clear statement in 18-38, विष्येन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् | परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ||

  • Here it is clearly stated that any संयोग of विषय and इन्द्रिय is विषम्

(3) There is an optional अन्वयः possible –

  1. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः आत्मवश्यैः इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन् विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् तु अधिगच्छति |
    1. The word तु is shifted nearer to अधिगच्छति
    2. The part वियुक्त in the word रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः can also be interpreted as with राग and द्वेष, instead of the other interpretations as devoid of राग and द्वेष
    3. The word आत्मवश्यैः can also be translated as ‘according to one’s own will’.
  2. (तथापि) अस्य सर्वदुःखानां प्रसादे हानिः उपजायते |
    1. The word (तथापि) is added, just to reinforce shift of तु.
    2. Sequence of सर्वदुःखानां and प्रसादे is interchanged. By that instead of सर्वदुःखानां हानिः it becomes प्रसादे हानिः.
  3. हि प्रसन्नचेतसः बुद्धिः आशु पर्यवतिष्ठते |
    1. I would interpret पर्यवतिष्ठते to mean “becomes perverse.’ Once mind senses pleasure, प्रसन्नचेतसः, by indulgence of इन्द्रिय-s with विषय-s, (इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन्) the effect anytime is only poisonous परिणामे विषमिव
    2. For deriving the meaning of पर्यवतिष्ठते it becomes interesting to also take note of the prefixes परि and अव. पर्यवस्था is a state, an uncertain state, like that of a tossed up coin, whichever way it may settle ‘down’ अव after ‘spinning’ परि.
    3. धातुः स्था in पर्यवतिष्ठते is usually परस्मैपदी. Here, पर्यवतिष्ठते is आत्मनेपदी. Is it that an unusual form is employed to suggest an unusual meaning ?

(4) In the previous two verses 62 and 63, the psychological analysis mentioned a step कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते. Intuitively, I had in my mind an enquiry, “What if कामात् क्रोधः न अभिजायते ?” Converse of क्रोधः अभिजायते is प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति. To my mind that is precisely what is discussed here. And the mention प्रसादे हानिः matches so well not only with 18-38, but बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते intellect becomes perverse. This interpretation gives a good continuity with further verses –

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना |

न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ||२-६६||

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते |

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ||२-६७||

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६८||

पदच्छेदैः –

न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य न च अयुक्तस्य भावना |

न च अभावयतः शान्तिः अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ||२-६६||

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यत् मनः अनुविधीयते |

तत् अस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुः नावम् इव अम्भसि ||२-६७||

तस्मात् यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६८||

अन्वयाः –

  1. अयुक्तस्य बुद्धिः न अस्ति अयुक्तस्य भावना च न (अस्ति) |
  2. अभावयतः च शान्तिः न (अस्ति) |
  3. अशान्तस्य सुखम् कुतः (अस्ति ?)
  4. हि इन्द्रियाणां चरतां मनः यत् अनुविधीयते
    1. तत् अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति
    2. अम्भसि वायुः नावम् (हरति) इव |
  5. तस्मात्, महाबाहो, यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता |

अन्वेषणम् (Deliberation) –

(5) Verses 62 and 63 had a negative tone. Verses 66 and 67 also have a negative tone. To interpret only the in-between verses 64 and 65 with positive tone, does not make continuity. The more I think of it, the more I feel, that my interpretation is fair.

(6) In fact continuity all through from 62 to 67 smoothly leads to verse # 68 यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता. Continuity is very much obvious in the starting word तस्मात् of verse # 68.

(7) The second line of 2-68 is ditto repeat of the second line of 2-58. There are only a couple of lines in GitA, which are duplicated at two different places.

  • One such line is इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता duplicated in 2-58 and in 2-68, second line at both places.
  • Another line is श्रेयान् स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् duplicated in 3-35 and 18-47, first line at both places.

(8) If we can take it that the lines, which are duplicated are that important, the line इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता is that important, that the discussion should lead to that. I contend that my interpretation does that.

शुभमस्तु !



Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 62+63)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 62+63)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकौ ६२+६३)

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |

सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ||२-६२||

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः |

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ।।२-६३।।

पदच्छेदैः –

ध्यायतः विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गः तेषु उपजायते |

सङ्गात् संजायते कामः कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते ||२-६२||

क्रोधात् भवति संमोहः संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः |

स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति ||२-६३||

अन्वयः –

  1. पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते
  2. सङ्गात् कामः संजायते
  3. कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते
  4. क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति
  5. संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति)
  6. स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति)
  7. बुद्धिनाशात् (पुमान्) प्रणश्यति

(1) As can be seen from the अन्वय, the two श्लोक-s together present a sequence of psychoanalysis. It hence becomes good to take them together.

  • The sequence mentioned is –
    1. विषयान् ध्यायतः तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते = Thinking of senses develops sensuousness or attachment.
    2. सङ्गात् कामः = sensuousness or attachment causes desire
    3. कामात् क्रोधः = (non-fulfilment of) desire causes anger
    4. क्रोधात् संमोहः = anger clouds the mind
    5. संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः = clouding of the mind causes digression from lessons learnt
    6. स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः = digression from lessons learnt affects intellect
    7. बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति = Affected intellect destroys personality
  • We shall discuss whether above translations are appropriate.

(2) The first sentence is a complex sentence, because पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः employs सच्छष्ठीप्रयोगः which is a charming Sanskrit style of a phrase serving the function of a subclause.

  • (2-1) In पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः
    • (2-1-1) पुंसः and ध्यायतः have षष्ठी विभक्तिः
    • (2-1-2) ध्यायतः has षष्ठी विभक्तिः of शतृ-कृदन्तम् ध्यायत् from धातुः ध्यै – भ्वा० अनिट् प० । ध्यै॒ चि॒न्ताया॑म् ।
      • ध्यै 1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (2-1-3) पुंसः – पुंस् इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • (1-1-3-1) पुंस् m. [पाति पा-पालने डुमसुन् Uṇ.4.177] (Nom. पुमान्, पुमांसौ, पुमांसः; Instr. du. पुंभ्यां; Voc. sing. पुमन्) 1 A male, male being; पुंसि विश्वसिति कुत्र कुमारी N.5.11. -2 A man, human being; यस्यार्थाः स पुमाँल्लोके H.1.
      • धातुः – पुंस् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । पुंसँ अभि॒वर्ध॑णे
    • (2-1-4) विषयान् – विषय-इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • (2-1-4-1) विषयः – 1 An object of sense; (these are five, corresponding to the five organs of sense; रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द corresponding to the eye, tongue, nose, skin, and ear); श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् Ś.1.1. -2 A worldly object or concern, an affair, a transaction. -3 The pleasures of sense, worldly or sensual objects (usually in pl.); यौवने विषयैषिणाम् R.1.8; शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुम् -4 An object, a thing, matter; नार्यो न जग्मुर्विषयान्तराणि R.7.12;8.89. -5 An object or thing aimed at,
      • I guess विषय is from धातुः विष्
        • विष् – I. 3 U. (वेवष्टि, वेविष्टे, विष्ट) 1 To surround. -2 To spread through, extend, pervade. -II. 9 P. (विष्णाति) To separate, disjoin. -III. 1 P. (वेषति) To sprinkle, pour out.
        • विष् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । विषु- [सेचने] १.७९४
        • विष् । जु० अनिट् उ० । विषॢ व्याप्तौ ३.१४
        • विष् । क्र्या० अनिट् प० । विष विप्रयोगे ९.६२
      • विषय-s certainly effect all those actions, which are there in the meanings of धातुः विष्
  • (2-1-5) पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः = as a person gets engrossed in thinking about विषय-s
  • (2-2) तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते
    • सङ्गः – obviously the word is derived from धातुः सम् + गम्
      • सम् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता &c, तस्या- मात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty. -2 Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’, as in समक्ष.
      • The word सङ्गः has two components सम् and गः. The second component गः is same as the second component in a word as खगः (खं गच्छति इति खगः) We can likewise interpret सङ्गः as सं गच्छति इति सङ्गः.
      • When you have सङ्गः with something or with somebody, you accompany that, as also that accompanies you. The English proverb “Man is known by the company he keeps” is so very apt. Here the सङ्गः mentioned is with विषयाः
    • तेषु – This pronoun of course stands for विषयाः. Usually सङ्गः should be with the third case तृतीया विभक्तिः. But सपत्मी विभक्तिः here is significant in the sense that तेषु सङ्गः would mean not just keeping company but being involved deeper and deeper.
    • उपजायते – This is from धातुः जन् – दि० सेट् आ० । जनीँ॒ प्रादुर्भा॒वे
      • जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
      • It is interesting that meaning of धातुः जन् is ‘to be born’. ‘To be born’ has passive sense inherent to it. One does not take birth; one is born.
      • The prefix उप also merits to be interpreted, matching with सप्तमी विभक्तिः of तेषु. The proximity implicit in the meaning of the prefix उप would become intimacy, when proximity becomes closer.  
    • It is interesting to note that sentences (1) to (3) all have verb-form जायते, but with prefixes उप, सम् and अभि employed in this sequence. The respective subject-words and sentences are सङ्गः उपजायते, कामः संजायते and क्रोधः अभिजायते.
      • The prefix उप has the sense of proximity, acquaintance, association.
      • The prefix सम् has the sense of involvement
      • The prefix अभि has the sense of pervading, engulfing, overwhelming.
      • The senses of उप, सम् and अभि have an increasing degree of their effect. Here the effects of सङ्गः, कामः and क्रोधः on the mind, are also of increasing degree.  
  • (2-3) सङ्गात् कामः संजायते – New word here is कामः
    • कामः – [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; often used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम.
    • कम् । भ्वा० सेट् आ० । कमुँ॒ कान्तौ॑ ।
    • सङ्गात् कामः संजायते – This seems to connote the mental state of growing desire or of addiction. This English word ‘addiction’ (ad+diction) possibly suggests that when addicted to something, the person would have the diction or talk of only that and of nothing else.
    • When the desire grows, it becomes greed. Greed knows no limit.
    • In theory of economics, there are laws of diminishing utility, of diminishing returns. These laws do not apply, when logic goes haywire.
    • कामः is corruption of the mind. When mind gets corrupted, logic goes haywire.
  • (2-4) कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते – New word here is क्रोधः
    • क्रोधः – [क्रुध्-भावे घञ्] 1 Anger, wrath; कामात्क्रोधो$भिजायते Bg.2.62; so क्रोधान्धः, क्रोधानलः &c. -2 (In Rhet.) Anger considered as the feeling which gives rise to the raudra sentiment.
    • धातु is क्रुध् (क्रु॒धँ क्रोधे॑ (कोपे॑) । – 4 P. (क्रुध्यति, क्रुद्ध) To be angry (with the dative of the person who is the object of anger); हरये क्रुध्यति; but sometimes with words like उपरि, प्रति &c. also; ते ह ब्राह्मणाश्चुक्रुधुः Bṛi. Up.3.1.2; ममोपरि स क्रुद्धः, न मां प्रति क्रुद्धो गुरुः &c.
    • One can interpret क्रोधः to mean loss of balance of mind or loss of reason, loss of tolerance. Actions of terrorists exhibit their extreme intolerance towards anything that does not conform to their brains, rather, not conforming to their washed brains.
    • The verb here is अभिजायते. क्रोधः pervades the mind, takes charge of the mind. There are any number of instances of drunkards beating their wives.
    • By interpreting क्रोधः to mean loss of balance of mind, one can also agree to why drunkards cannot walk straight. When balance of mind is lost, legs start misbehaving, the voice gets an indifferent pitch, all body-organs start misbehaving !
  • (2-5) क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति – New word here is संमोहः
    • मोहः – [मुह् घञ्] 1 Loss of consciousness, fainting, a swoon, insensibility; मोहादभूत् कष्टतरः प्रबोधः R.14.56; -2 Perplexity, delusion, embarrassment, confusion; यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव Bg.4.35. -3 Folly, ignorance, infatuation; तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम् R.1.2; Ś.7.25. -4 Error, mistake.
    • धातु is मुह् (मुः॒अँ वैचि॑त्त्ये) – 4 P. (मुह्यति, मुग्ध or मूढ) 1 To faint, swoon, lose consciousness, become senseless; इहाहं द्रष्टुमाह्वं तां स्मरन्नेवं मुमोह सः Bk.6.21;1.2;15.16. -2 To be perplexed or bewildered, to be disturbed in mind, be at a loss; आपत्स्वपि न मुह्यन्ति नराः पण्डितबुद्धयः H.1.145; Ki. 18.9. -3 To be foolish, stupid, or infatuated. -4 To fail. -5 To err, mistake.
    • May it be noted that धातु मुह् has two past passive participles मुग्ध or मूढ, as if suggesting two levels of effects of मोह, मूढ more serious than मुग्ध.
    • क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति = When balance of mind is lost, only erroneous thoughts and actions happen. which can end up even in madness.
  • (2-6) संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति) – New word here is स्मृतिविभ्रमः
    • स्मृतिविभ्रमः – This is a compound word स्मृतेः विभ्रमः इति स्मृतिविभ्रमः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • स्मृतिः – f. [स्मृ-क्तिन्] 1 Remembrance; recollection, memory; अश्वत्थामा करधृतधनुः किं न यातः स्मृतिं ते Ve.3.21; संस्कारमात्रजन्यं ज्ञानं स्मृतिः T. S.; स्मृत्युपस्थितौ इमौ द्वौ श्लोकौ U.6;4.2. -2 Thinking of, calling to mind. -3 Discrimination, discretion; स्मृतौ हतायां भृतमानदुर्दृशः Bhāg.4.3.17. -8 Understanding.
    • स्मृ – (1) भ्वा० अनिट् प० । स्मृ॒ चि॒न्ताया॑म्  । (2) स्मृ(म्) आ॒ध्याने॑ । (3) स्वा० अनिट् प० । स्मृ॒ [प्रीतिपाल॒नयोः । प्रीतिचल॒नयो॒रित्य॒न्ये] इत्येके॑
    • विभ्रमः – 1 Roaming or wandering about. -2 Whirling or going round, rolling about; निवृत्तसर्वेन्द्रियवृत्तिविभ्रमः Bhāg.1.9.31. -3 Error, mistake, blunder. -4 Disturbance, perturbation; ऊर्मिव्यतिकरविभ्रमप्रचण्डः Mv.6.26.
    • भ्रमः [भ्रम्-घञ्] 1 Moving or roaming about, roving. -2 Turning round, whirling, revolving. -3 Circular motion, rotation. -4 Straying, deviating. -5 An error, a mistake, misapprehension, delusion; शुक्तौ रजतमिति ज्ञानं भ्रमः; भ्रमं संमोहमावर्तमभ्यासाद्विनिवर्तयेत् Mb.12.274.7; भ्रमो द्विविधः विपर्यासः संशयश्च T. S. -6 Confusion, perplexity, embarrassment.
    • भ्रम् – भ्वा० सेट् प० । भ्रमुँ चल॑ने । दि० सेट् प० । भ्रमुँ अन॑वस्थाने ।
    • संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति) – Having interpreted संमोह as erroneous thoughts and actions, we can consider स्मृति in स्मृतिविभ्रमः to be referring to the subconscious. Right from our childhood experiences get stored in the subconscious. A prick of a needle makes one cautious for entire life to beware of pointed objects. That is what स्मृति subconscious is. संमोह i.e. erroneous thoughts and actions affect the subconscious. Addiction to smoking or to alcoholic drinks blunts the subconscious and no ill effects of smoking or of alcoholic drinks are registered in the subconscious. So the subconscious does not provoke caution or rejection. Such failure of the subconscious is स्मृतिविभ्रमः.
    • Computers have BIOS (Built In Operating System). When we put the computer on, it boots by BIOS getting activated. No computer can work if its BIOS is corrupted.
  • (2-7) स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति) – Here word used instead of स्मृतिविभ्रमः is स्मृतिभ्रंश. Also new word is बुद्धिनाशः.
    • स्मृतेः भ्रंशः इति स्मृतिभ्रंशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
    • बुद्धेः नाशः इति बुद्धिनाशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
    • भ्रंशः – [भ्रंश् भावे घञ्] 1 Falling off, dropping down, fall, slipping or falling down; सेहे$स्य न भ्रंशमतो न लोभात् R.16.74; कनकवलयभ्रंशरिक्तप्रकोष्ठः Me.2. -2 Decline, decrease, decay. -3 Fall, destruction, ruin, overthrow. -4 Losing, loss, deprivation; स्मृतिभ्रंशाद् बुद्धिनाशः Bg.2.63;
    • बुद्धिः – f. [बुध्-क्तिन्] 1 Perception, comprehension. -2 Intellect, understanding, intelligence, talent; शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः R.1.19. -3 Information, knowledge; बुद्धिर्यस्य बलं तस्य H.2.122 ‘knowledge is power’; P.I.4.52. -4 Discrimination, judgement, discernment; विदेशेष्वपि विज्ञाताः सर्वतो बुद्धिनिश्चयाः Rām.1.7.17. -5 Mind; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2;
    • धातुः बुध् (भ्वा० सेट् उ० । बुधिँ॑र् बोध॑ने । दि० अनिट् आ० । बु॒धँ॒ अव॒गम॑ने ।) – 1 U., Ā. (बोधति-ते, बुध्यते, बुद्ध) 1 To know, understand, comprehend; क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1. 3;9.24; -2 To perceive, notice, recognise, mark; हिरण्मयं हंसमबोधि नैषधः N.1.117 -3 To deem, regard, consider, esteem &c. -4 To heed, attend to. -5 To think, reflect.
    • नाशः – [नश्-भावे घञ्] 1 Disappearance; गता नाशं तारा उपकृतमसाधाविव जने Mk.5.25. -2 Frustration, destruction, ruin, loss; नेहाभिक्रमनाशो$स्ति Bg.2.4
    • धातुः नश् (ण॒शँ अद॑र्शने) – I. 4. P. (नश्यति, ननाश, अनशत्, नङ्क्ष्यति, नशिष्यति नष्ट; caus. नाशयति; desid. निनङ्क्षति, निनशिषति) 1 To be lost, to disappear, vanish, become invisible; ध्रुवाणि तस्य नश्यन्ति H.1; तथा सामा न नश्यति Ms.8.247; Y.2.58; क्षणनष्टदृष्टतिमिरम् Mk.5.24. -2 To be destroyed, to perish, die, be ruined; जीवनाशं ननाश च Bk.14.31
    • स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति) – By the analogy of a computer, that no computer can work if the BIOS fails is possibly the best and simplest explanation of स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति).
  • (2-8) बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति – When intellect is affected man is no different than any other animal.

(3) This psychoanalysis starts with पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः and ends up at प्रणश्यति. It is a downfall into an abyss. One needs a savior, a Krishna.  

शुभमस्तु !