परिग्रहापरिग्रहयोः

I am working on another article “गीता, a recipe for परं श्रेयः ?” There I came to the words परिग्रहः and अपरिग्रहः. In गीता they occur at three places, निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः | शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् (4’21) योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः | एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः (6’10) अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् | विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते (18’53). I realize that I must understand परिग्रहः and अपरिग्रहः more clearly. It would be good to find from the dictionary the meanings of परिग्रह, परिग्रह starting with ग्रह्, ग्रहः.

ग्रह् 9 U. (In Vedic literature ग्रभ्; गृह्णाति, जग्राह, अग्र- हीत्, ग्रहीतुम्, गृहीत caus. ग्राहयति; desid. जिवृक्षति) 1 To seize, take, take or catch hold of, lay hold of, catch, grasp; तयोर्जग्रहतुः पादान् राजा राज्ञी च मागधी R.1.57; आलाने गृह्यते हस्ती वाजी वल्गासु गृह्यते Mk.1.5; तं कण्ठे जग्राह K.363. पाणिं गृहीत्वा, चरणं गृहीत्वा &c. -2 To receive, take, accept, exact; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् R.1.18; Ms.7.124; 9.162. -3 To apprehend, capture, take prisoner. बन्दिग्राहं गृहीत्वा V.1; यांस्तत्र चोरान् गृह्णीयात् Ms.8.34. -4 To arrest, stop, catch; अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते Bg.6.35. -5 To captivate, attract; महाराजगृहीत- हृदयया मया V.4; हृदये गृह्यते नारी Mk.1.5; माधुर्यमीष्टे हरिणान् ग्रहीतुम् R.18.13. -6 To win over, persuade, induce to one’s side; लुब्धमर्थेन गृह्णीयात् Chāṇ.33; Pt.1.69,184. -7 (Hence) To please, gratify, satisfy, propitiate; ग्रहीतुमार्यान् परिचर्यया मुहुर्महानुभावा हि नितान्तमर्थिनः Śi.1.17,33. -8 To affect; seize or possess (as a demon, spirit &c.); as in पिशाचगृहीत, वेतालगृहीत. -9 To assume, take; द्युतिमग्रहीद् ग्रहगणः Śi.9.23; Bk.19.29. -10 To learn, know, recognize, understand; युवतीजनैर्जग्रहे मुनि- प्रभावः Ki.1.8; Pt.1.43. -11 To regard, consider, believe, take for; मयापि मृत्पिण्डबुद्धिना तथैव गृहीतम् Ś.6; परिहासविजल्पितं सखे परमार्थेन न गृह्यतां वचः Ś.2.19; एवं जनो गृह्णाति M.1; Mu.3. -12 To catch or perceive (as by an organ of sense); ज्यानिनादमथ गृह्णती तयोः R.11.15. -13 To master, grasp, comprehend; न्यस्ताक्षरामक्षरभूमि- कायां कार्त्स्न्येन गृह्णाति लिपिं न यावत् R.18.46. -14 To guess, conjecture, infer; नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च गृह्यते$न्तर्गतं मनः Ms.8.26. -15 To utter, mention (as a name); यदि मयान्यस्य नामापि न गृहितम् K.35; न तु नामापि गृह्णीयात् पत्यौ प्रेते परस्य तु Ms.5.157. -16 To buy, purchase; कियता मूल्येनैतत्पुस्तकं गृहीतम् Pt.2; Y.2.169; Ms.8.21. -17 To deprive (one) of, take away from, rob or seize away; यथा रणे प्राणान् बहूनामग्रहीद् द्विषाम् Bk.9.9;15.63. -18 To wear, put on (as clothes &c.); वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरो$पराणि Bg.2.22. -19 To conceive. -20 To observe (as a fast). -21 To eclipse. -22 To undertake, undergo, begin. -23 To take up, draw (water.); अपस्फुरं गृभायत सोममिन्द्राय पातवे Rv.8.69.1. -24 To stop, intercept. -25 To withdraw, to draw back; यथोर्णनाभिः सृजते गृह्णते Muṇḍa.1.7. -26 To include. -27 To receive hospitably (as a guest). [The senses of this root may be variously modified according to the noun with which it is joined]. -Caus. 1 To cause to take, catch, seize or accept. -2 To give away in marriage; अयाचितारं न हि देवदेवमद्रिः सुतां ग्राहयितुं शशाक Ku.1.52. -3 To teach, make one acquainted with. -4 To make one take, deliver over to. -5 To become familiar with; -With अनुसम् to salute humbly. -अप to take away, tear off. -अभि to seize forcibly. -II. 1 P., 10 U. (ग्रहति, ग्राहयति-ते) To take, receive, &c.

ग्रहः [ग्रह्-अच्] 1 Seizing, grasping, laying hold of, seizure, रुरुधुः कचग्रहैः R.19.31. -2 A grip, grasp, hold; विक्रम्य कौशिकं खड्गं मोक्षयित्वा ग्रहं रिपोः Mb.3.157.11; कर्कटकग्रहात् Pt.1.26. -3 Taking, receiving, accepting; receipt. -4 Stealing, robbing; अङ्गुलीग्रन्थिभेदस्य छेदयेत्प्रथमे ग्रहे Ms.9.277; so गोग्रहः. -5 Booty, spoil. -6 Eclipse; see ग्रहण. -7 A planet, (sometimes more particularly ‘Rāhu’; वध्यमाने ग्रहेणाथ आदित्ये मन्युराविशत् Mb.1.24.7.) (the planets are nine :– सूर्यश्चन्द्रो मङ्गलश्च बुधश्चापि बृहस्पतिः । शुक्रः शनैश्चरो राहुः केतुश्चेति ग्रहा नव ॥); नक्षत्रताराग्रहसंकुलापि (रात्रिः) R.6.22;3.13;12.28; गुरुणा स्तनभारेण मुखचन्द्रेण भास्वता । शनैश्चराभ्यां पादाभ्यां रेजे ग्रहमयीव सा ॥ Bh.1.17. -8 Mentioning; utterance, repeating (as of a name) नामजातिग्रहं त्वेषामभिद्रोहेण कुर्वतः Ms.8.271; Amaru.85. -9 A shark, crocodile. -10 An imp in general. -11 A particular class of evil demons supposed to seize upon children and produce convulsions &c. cf. Mb. Crit. ed. 3.219.26; कृष्णग्रहगृहीतात्मा न वेद जगदीदृशम् Bhāg.7.4.38. -12 Apprehension, perception; ज्योतिश्चक्षुर्गुणग्रहः. …… श्रोत्रं गुणग्रहः Bhāg.2.1.21-22. -13 An organ or instrument of apprehension; Bṛi. Up.3.2.1. -14 Tenacity, perseverance, persistence; नृणां स्वत्वग्रहो यतः Bhāg.7.14.11. -15 Purpose, design. -16 Favour, patronage. -17 The place of a planet in the fixed zodiac.-18 The number ‘nine’. -19 Any state of mind which proceeds from magical influences. -20 A house. -21 A spoonful, ladleful; ग्रहान्त्सोमस्य मिमते द्वादश Rv.1.114.5. -22 A ladle or vessel; चमसानां ग्रहाणां च शुद्धिः प्रक्षालनेन तु Ms.5.116. -23 The middle of a bow. -24 A movable point in the heavens. -25 Keeping back, obstructing. -26 Taking away, depriving; प्राण˚ Pt.1.295. -27 Preparation for war; ग्रहो$वग्रहनिर्बन्धग्रहणेषु रणोद्यमे । सूर्यादौ पूतनादौ च सैंहिकेये$पि तत् त्रिषु । Nm. -28 A guest (अतिथि); यथा सिद्धस्य चान्नस्य ग्रहायाग्रं प्रदीयते Mb.13.1.6. -29 Imprisoning, imprisonment; Mb.13.136.11.

परिग्रहः 1 Seizing, holding, taking, grasping; आसनरज्जुपरिग्रहे R.9.46; शङ्कापरिग्रहः Mu.1 ‘taking or entertaining a doubt’. -2 Surrounding, enclosing, encircling, fencing round. -3 Putting on, wrapping round (as a dress); मौलिपरिग्रहः R.18.38. -4 Assuming, taking; मानपरिग्रहः Amaru.97; विवाहलक्ष्मी˚ U.4. -5 Receiving, taking, accepting, acceptance; भौमो मुनेः स्थानपरिग्रहो$यम् R.13.36; अर्ध्यपरिग्रहान्ते 7;12.16; Ku. 6.53; विद्यापरिग्रहाय Māl.1; so आसनपरिग्रहं करोतु देवः U.3 ‘your majesty will be pleased to take a seat or sit down’. -6 Possessions, property, belongings; त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः Bg. 4.21; R.15.55; V.4.26. -7 Taking in marriage, marriage; नवे दारपरिग्रहे U.1.19; Māl.5.27; असंशयं क्षत्रपरिग्रहक्षमा Ś.1.22; न हि गणयति क्षुद्रो जन्तुः परिग्रहफल्गुताम् Bh.1.9. -8 A wife, queen; प्रयतपरिग्रहद्वितीयः R.1.95,92;9.14; 11.33;16.8; Ś.5.28,31; परिग्रहबहुत्वे$पि Ś.3.19; प्राप श्रियं मुनिवरस्य परिग्रहो$सौ Rām. Ch. -9 Taking under one’s protection, favouring; धन्याः स्मो वः परिग्रहात् U.7. 11; M.1.13; कुर्वन्ति पाण्डवपरिग्रहमेव पौराः Pañch.1.2. -10 Attendants, followers, train, retinue, suite; परिग्रहेण सर्वेण कोषेण च महीयसा Śiva.B.8.4. -11 A household, family, members of a family. -12 The seraglio or household of a king, harem. -13 Anything received, a present; राजपरिग्रहो$यम् Ś.1. -14 Assent, consent. -15 Taking possession of, acquiring. -16 A claim. -17 Entertaining, honouring, receiving (a guest &c.). Mb.1.195.1. -18 An entertainer. -19 Assistance. -20 A husband. -21 Respect, reverence.-22 Grace, favour. -23 Comprehension, understanding. -24 Undertaking, performing. -25 Subjugation; धर्षितो मत्परिग्रहः Mb.12.32.55. -26 Dominion.-27 Punishment. -28 Connection, relation. -29 Summing up, totality. -3 A house, residence. -31 Removing, taking away. -32 A curse; निर्मुक्तनिष्ठुरपरिग्रहपाशबन्धः Rām. Ch. (cf. पत्नीपरिजनादानमूलशापाः परिग्रहाः Ak.). -33 (In Ved. gram.) The double mention of a word both before and after इति. -34 The form which precedes इति. -35 Root, origin. -36 The eclipse of the sun or moon. -37 An oath. -38 The rear of an army. -39 N. of Viṣṇu.-40 The body; आश्रयन्त्याः स्वभावेन मम पूर्वपरिग्रहम् Mb.12. 32.57. (com. स्वभावेन चित्तेन मम परिग्रहं शरीरं आश्रयन्त्याः). -41 Administration; राज्यपरिग्रहः Mb.12.32.51.

अपरिग्रह a. Without possessions or belonging, attendants &c; Without a wife; तदाप्रभृत्येव विमुक्तसङ्गः पतिः पशूनामपरिग्रहो$भूत Ku.1.53. quite destitute, as in निराशीरपरिग्रहः Bg.6.1. -हः 1 Non-acceptance, rejection, renunciation, one of the several kinds of yamas (mental restraints) stated in Yogaśāstra by Patañjali. -2 Destitution, poverty.

It is interesting to note that number of meanings of परिग्रहः are more than those of ग्रहः. This would be so, because the prefix परि has its own shades of meaning.

From उपसर्गवृत्तिः – परीत्युपसर्गः समन्ततो भावः, व्याप्तिः, दोष-आख्यान-उपरभूषण-पूजा-आवर्जन-आलिङ्गन-निवसन-व्याधि-शोक-वीप्सासु अर्थेषु

Actually, since अपरिग्रहः is like an antonym of परिग्रहः, number of meanings of अपरिग्रहः should be as many as of परिग्रहः . Though number of meanings of अपरिग्रहः detailed in the dictionary are less, the meanings “non-acceptance, rejection, renunciation” themselves merit appreciation of the nuances in the shades of their meanings.

Since one meaning of अपरिग्रहः is renunciation, it becomes synonymous with त्याग. Of course अपरिग्रहः is much more than त्यागः.

त्यागः [त्यज्-भावे घञ्] 1 Leaving, forsaking, abandoning, deserting, separation; न माता न पिता न स्त्री न पुत्रस्त्यागमर्हति Ms.8.389;9.79. -2 Giving up, resigning, renouncing; Ms.1.112; सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान् Bg.12.11. -3 Gift, donation, giving away as charity; करे श्लाघ्यस्त्याग Bh.2.65; वित्तं त्यागनियुक्तम् (दुर्लभम्) H. 1.139; त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् R.1.7; Pt.1.169. -4 Liberality, generosity; Ms.2.97; R.1.22. -5 Secretion, excretion. -6 Dismissing, discharging. -7 Sacrificing oneself; मिथो यत् त्यागमुभयासो अग्मन् Rv.4.24.3. -8 A sage.

Looking back at the three श्लोक-s in गीता, निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः | शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् (4’21) योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः | एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः (6’10) अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् | विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते (18’53) one can see that there is so much in common between (4’21) and (6’10). The words निराशीः and यतचित्तात्मा are there in both. It is त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः in (4’21) and अपरिग्रहः in (6’10). They also sound to be synonymous.

I think this is good enough study of परिग्रहः and अपरिग्रहः.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Advertisements

One thought on “परिग्रहापरिग्रहयोः

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s