Analytics in गीता

If it is to be contended that much of गीता is based on साङ्ख्य-philosophy, that philosophy itself seems to be very analytical in its spirit. Since the words साङ्ख्य and सङ्ख्या are closely related and since one meaning of सङ्ख्या is number, the word साङ्ख्य can be taken to mean ‘enumerative’. Analytics is inherent to enumeration. That would be some explanation of why this philosophy, which is analytical in its spirit is called as साङ्ख्य philosophy.

(A) A very prominent instance which comes to mind is – पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे | साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् (18’12) अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् | विविधाश्च पृथक् चेष्टाः दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम् (18’13). Here we have the analysis of the five elements, which participate in fulfilment of tasks सर्वकर्मणाम् सिद्धये. The five elements are (1) अधिष्ठानम् (2) कर्ता (3) पृथग्विधम् करणम् (4) विविधाश्च पृथक् चेष्टाः (5) दैवम्. These five elements are of course as साङ्ख्ये प्रोक्तानि.

  • The first element is mentioned as अधिष्ठानम्, not just स्थानम्. I would contend that अधिष्ठानम् is such स्थानम्, which is fit for कर्मसिद्धिः. I read  शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः | नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् (6’11) as specifying how a स्थानम् would become अधिष्ठानम्. Note शुचौ देशे connotes pleasant, cleaned, purified, conducive location and ambience, स्थिरमासनम् connotes steadiness, rigidity नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचम् connotes uniform equilibrium चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् connotes leveled and also cushioned to isolate vibrations and shocks

(B) A good study of psychoanalysis of, how association, attachment and involvement in worldly matters leads to self-destruction, can be learnt in ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते | सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोsभिजायते (2’62) क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः | स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति (2’63)

(C) The cycle of interdependence of natural and ethereal phenomena is detailed in अन्नाद्भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्नसंभवः | यज्ञाद्भवति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः (3’14) कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् | तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम् (3’15) एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः | अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति (3’16)

(D) The analytics is both subtle and comprehensive at the same time as can be seen in कर्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्ध्यव्यं च विकर्मणः | अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः (4’17)

(E) The concept of यज्ञ is both minute and varied, as is detailed in 4’28, 4’29, 4’30.

(F) In तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया | उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः (4’34) I find wonderful summary of the entire theory of education. Since education has two aspects, learning and teaching, I find the first line to be summarizing the theory of learning and the second line, the theory of teaching.

  • तद्विद्धि = get to know that, i.e. whichever topic of knowledge, you want to learn
  • प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया
    • प्रणिपातेन = प्रकृष्टः नितान्तः पातः, तेन = By intensive thorough analysis
    • परिप्रश्नेन = circumspect questioning of the logic, detailed enquiry into the concepts involved
    • सेवया = by verification and validation of the theory, which is often obtained by Exercising, Experimenting and Experiencing
    • Mr. Herbert Casson summarized the theory of Learning by an acronym OTA (Observation, Thinking, Action). Here प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया.
  • उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः –
    • Teacher, to impart the knowledge has to be himself ज्ञानी.
    • Even if one is ज्ञानी, teaching is an aptitude by itself. So to impart the knowledge the teacher has to have the aptitude of being तत्त्वदर्शी.
    • The teacher also needs to keep a judgement, an assessment of the student of how much hand-holding a student needs. The teacher should never ever give the answer. The answers have to be explored by the student only. The teacher should guide and lead the student towards the answer. That is the significance of the prefix उप in उपदेक्ष्यन्ति – उप, i.e. near enough, as the student would need, but never the answer. Again उपदेक्ष्यन्ति contains the meaning of showing the direction, again, just showing the direction. Treading the path has to be done by the student himself.
    • In chapter 39 of श्रीसाईसच्चरितम् one would get flabbergasted by a wonderful perception lent by श्रीसाईबाबा by suggesting ते ज्ञानं to be rather read as तेsज्ञानम्. That prompts a very challenging thought, “Is a teacher supposed to impart Knowledge or is supposed to remove ignorance ?” Knowledge is said to be self-revealing तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति (4’38). Saint Kabir also said जिन दूँढा तिन पाइयाँ गहरे पानी पैठ. Teacher should remove the doubts, clear the obstacles, help overcome the impediments on the path. There is a श्लोक, defining why गुरु is called a गुरु – गुकारस्त्वन्धकारो वै । रुकारस्तन्निवर्तनम् । अन्धकारनिवर्तित्वात् । गुरुरित्यभिधीयते.॥
    • The second line does summarize the theory of teaching.

(G) The Godhood or परमात्वतत्त्व or ब्रह्मतत्त्व or पुरुषः is said to have two identities परा प्रकृतिः अपरा प्रकृतिश्च.

  • Of these अपरा प्रकृतिः is stated to be the eightfold cognitive identity – भूमिरापोsनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च | अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा (7’4) अपरेयम् (= अपरा इयम्)
  • परा प्रकृतिः is then the noncognitive identity, which is both the genesis and support system of the cosmos – इतस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् | जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् (7’5)
  • I get to use the word identity, which, as in mathematics, connotes an equation or statement or theory, which is eternally true and valid.

In 13’5 and 13’6 क्षेत्रम् is analyzed to be comprising of as many as 31 aspects.

  1. महाभूतानि …………. 5
  2. अहङ्कारः ………….. 1
  3. बुद्धिः ………………. 1
  4. अव्यक्तम् …………… 1
  5. इन्द्रियाणि दश ..……. 10
  6. एकम् ………………. 1
  7. पञ्च इन्द्रियगोचराः …..  5
  8. इच्छा ……………….  1
  9. द्वेषः ………………..  1
  10. सुखम् दुःखम् ………..  2
  11. सङ्घातः ……………. 1 त्वक् च मांसं तथा$स्थीनि मज्जा स्नायुश्च पञ्चमम् । इत्येतदिह संघातम् Mb.12.184.2
  12. चेतना ………………. 1
  13. धृतिः ……………….. 1

Out of these 13,

  1. (1) महाभूतानि, (5) इन्द्रियाणि (5 out of 10), (7) इन्द्रियगोचराः, (11) सङ्घातः seem to be physiological with material content.
    1. (1) महाभूतानि are well known to be पञ्च and are enlisted as भूमिरापोsनलो वायुः खम् in 7’4.
    2. The count ‘5 out of 10’ for इन्द्रियाणि would take note of कर्मेन्द्रियाणि  
  2. (2) अहङ्कारः (3) बुद्धिः (6) एकम् (मनः) (8) इच्छा (9) द्वेषः (10) सुखं दुःखम् (12) चेतना (13) धृतिः seem to be aspects of psychology
    1. Out of these (2) अहङ्कारः (3) बुद्धिः (8) इच्छा (12) चेतना (13) धृतिः seem to be primarily inherent or internal instincts.
    2. (6) एकम् (मनः) (9) द्वेषः (10) सुखं दुःखम् would contain responses to external instincts, as received by पञ्च ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि – श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च (15’9) by which मनः विषयानुपसेवते. And corresponding विषयाः are शब्दाः, रूपाणि, रसाः, गन्धाः, स्पर्शाश्च  
  3. (4) अव्यक्तम् appeals to be the philosophical aspect

(H) Virtues are enlisted in अमानित्वमदंभित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् | आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः (13’7) इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कारमेव च | जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् (13’8) असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु | नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु (13’9) मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी | विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि (13’10) अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् | एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोsन्यथा (13’11) Virtues are also listed in अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः | दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् (16’1) अहिंसासत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् | दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वम् मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् (16’2) तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता | भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत (16’3)

Of people, who become spiritually inclined, there would be four categories. See चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोर्जुन | आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ (7’16). What are detailed as inherent aptitudes of ब्रह्मकर्म, क्षात्रकर्म, वैश्यकर्म and शूद्रकर्म are in fact lists of virtues only. See शमो दमः तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च | ज्ञानविज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् (18’42) शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् | दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् (18’43) कृषिगोरक्षवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम् | परिचार्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् (18’44).

(I) Given the virtues, what becomes the ideal conduct is detailed as कायिक, वाचिक and मानस तप-s in देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् | ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते (17’14) अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् | स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्-मयं तप उच्यते (17’15) मनःप्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः | भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते (17’16)

(J) Given the virtues and the ideal conduct, the vices to be refraining from and to be guarded against are stated in दम्भो दर्पोभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च | अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ सम्पदमासुरीम् (16’4) and also in अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् | विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते (18’53)

The गुणाः – सत्त्वम्, रजः, तमः have the capacity to keep one engaged in worldly bonds, as has been detailed in 14’6, 14’7, 14’8. How they thrive is detailed in 14’9. How their influence grows is detailed in 14’11, 14’12 and 14’13. The carryovers of their influences are detailed in 14’14 and 14’15. Their results are detailed in 14’16. Their corollaries are detailed in 14’17. What they lead to are detailed in 14’18.

There is threefold (सात्विक, राजस, तामस) detailing

  1. of श्रद्धा in 17’4
  2. of आहार in 17’8, 17’9 and 17’10
  3. Of यज्ञ in 17’11, 17’12, 17’13
  4. Of तप in 17’17, 17’18, 17’19,
  5. Of दान in 17’20, 17’21, 17’22
  6. Of ज्ञानम् in 18’20, 18’21, 18’22
  7. Of कर्म in 18’23, 18’24, 18’25
  8. Of कर्ता in 18’26, 18’27, 18’28
  9. Of बुद्धिः in 18’30, 18’31, 18’32
  10. Of धृतिः  in 18’33, 18’34, 18’35
  11. Of सुखम् in 18’37, 18’38, 18’39

(K) One who becomes ineligible for all the knowledge, due to oneself being otherwise, is also summarized in इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन | न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति (18’67).

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

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4 thoughts on “Analytics in गीता

  1. no words can describe this analysis. I pray for your long life for giving us such indeapth analysis on Gita.

  2. बहुत अच्छा विश्लेषण है| Excellent treatment of the topic. I will like to learn the subject in more detail from you, Sir.

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