गीताभ्यासे 4-31 यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो

The श्लोक: is ⇒  

यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।

नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥ ४-३१॥

पदच्छेदैः 

यज्ञशिष्ट-अमृतभुज: यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।

न अयम् लोक: अस्ति अयज्ञस्य कुत: अन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥ ४-३१॥

वाक्यांशशः विश्लेषणम् (४-३०)  

अनुक्र.अव्यया: अन्ये सुबन्ताः कर्तृपदीयाःकर्मपदीयाःतिङन्ताः कृदन्ताः 
1कुरुसत्तम 
2यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजः सनातनं ब्रह्म यान्ति 
3अयज्ञस्य अयम् लोकः न अस्ति 
4कुतः अन्यः (लोकः)(भवेत्) 

अन्वयार्थाः पदाभ्यासाश्च 

  1. कुरुसत्तम 
    1. कुरुसत्तम – संबुद्धौ एक. 
    2. कुरुषु सत्तमः इति कुरुसत्तमः 
    3. कुरुषु – कुरु descendant of कुरु dynasty वि. अत्र पुं. 7’3
    4. सत्तम – a. Most beautiful, the best, excellent, the most respectable
    5. कुरुसत्तम: = the most respectable among descendants of कुरु dynasty
  2. यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुज: सनातनम् ब्रह्म यान्ति 
    1. यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुज: – यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुज् पुं. 1’3 
      1. यज्ञात् शिष्टम् इति यज्ञशिष्टम् (पञ्चमी-तत्पुरुषः) 
      2. यज्ञशिष्टम् अमृतम् इति यज्ञशिष्टामृतम् (कर्मधारयः) 
      3. यज्ञशिष्टामृतम् भुङ्क्ते इति यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुक् (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) 
      4. यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजः = those who partake of the left-over after यज्ञ:, which for them is nectar only. 
    2. सनातनम् – सनातन वि. 2’1 / सनातन – a. (-नी f.) 1 Perpetual, constant, eternal, permanent; ज्वलन्मणिव्योमसदां सनातनम् Ki.8.1; एष धर्मः सनातनः. -2 Firm, fixed, settled; एष धर्मः सनातनः U.5.22. -3 Primeval, ancient 
    3. ब्रह्म – ब्रह्मन् नपुं. 2’1 / ब्रह्मन् – n. [बृंह्-मनिन् नकारस्याकारे ऋतो रत्वम्; cf. Uṇ.4.145.] 1 The Supreme Being, regarded as impersonal and divested of all quality and action; (according to the Vedāntins, Brahman is both the efficient and the material cause of the visible universe, the all-pervading soul and spirit of the universe, the essence from which all created things are produced and into which they are absorbed 
    4. यान्ति – या इति धातुः / तस्य लटि प्र.पु. बहु. / या – 2 P. (याति, ययौ, अयासीत्, यास्यति, यातुम्, यात) 1 To go, move, walk, proceed  
    5. यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुज: सनातनम् ब्रह्म यान्ति = Those who partake of the left-over after यज्ञ:, which for them is nectar only, attain the eternal all-pervading soul and spirit of the universe, the essence from which all created things are produced and into which they are absorbed. 
  3. अयज्ञस्य अयम् लोक: न अस्ति 
    1. अयज्ञस्य – अयज्ञ वि. अत्र पुं. 6’1 / न यज्ञः यस्य सः अयज्ञः (बहुव्रीहिः) / अयज्ञः is one who does not perform any यज्ञः, i.e. one who does not sacrifice anything.  
    2. अयम् – इदम् this सर्व. अत्र पुं. 1’1 
    3. लोक: – लोक पुं. 1’1 / लोक: [लोक्यतेऽसौ लोक्-घञ्] 1 The world, a division of the universe; (roughly speaking there are three lokas स्वर्ग, पृथ्वी and पाताल, but according to fuller classification the lokas are fourteen, seven higher regions rising from the earth one above the other, i. e. भूर्लोक, भुवर्लोक, स्वर्लोक, महर्लोक, जनर्लोक, तपर्लोक, and सत्यलोक or ब्रह्मलोक; and seven lower regions, descending from the earth one below the other; i. e. अतल, वितल, सुतल, रसातल, तलातल, महातल, and पाताल). -2 The earth, terrestrial world (भूलोक); इह- लोके in this world (opp. परत्र) 
    4. न – not अव्ययम् 
    5. अस्ति – अस् इति धातुः / तस्य लटि प्र.पु. एक. / अस् – 2 P. [अस्ति, आसीत्, अस्तु, स्यात्; defective in non-conjugational tenses, its forms being made up from the root भू.] 1 To be, live, exist (showing mere existence) 
    6. अयज्ञस्य अयम् लोक: न अस्ति = one who does not perform any यज्ञः, i.e. one who does not sacrifice anything does not merit even this world. 
  4. अन्यः लोक: कुत: (भवेत्) 
    1. अन्यः – अन्यत् another सर्व. अत्र पुं. 1’1 
    2. कुत: – ind. 1 From where, whence; कस्य त्वं वा कुत आयातः Moha M.3. -2 Where, where else, in what (other) place &c.; तार्तीयस्य कुतो गतिः Bhāg.8.19.34; ईदृग्विनोदः कुतः Ś.2.5. -3 Why, wherefore, from what cause or motive; कुत इदमुच्यते Ś.5. -4 How, in what manner; स्फुरति च बाहुः कुतः फलमिहास्य Ś.1.16. -5 Much more, much less; न त्वत्समोस्त्यभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यः Bg.11.43, 4.31; न मे स्तेनो जनपदे न कदर्यो … न स्वैरी न स्वैरिणी कुतः Ch. Up. -6 Because, for; Ś.1. कुतस् is sometimes used merely for the abl. of किम्; कुतः कालात्समुत्पन्नम् V. P. (= कस्मात् कालात् &c.). कुतः becomes indefinite when connected with the particles चिद्, चन, or अपि. भयं कच्चिन्न चास्मासु कुतश्चिद्विद्यते महत् Rām.2.74.20 
    3. भवेत् – भू 1 प. धातुः / तस्य विधिलिङ्-लकारे प्र.पु. एक. / 
    4. (अयज्ञस्य अयम् लोक: न अस्ति) (अयज्ञस्य) अन्यः लोक: कुत: (भवेत्) – one who does not perform any यज्ञः, i.e. one who does not sacrifice anything does not merit even this world, how can he merit another (better) world ? 

छन्दोविश्लेषणम् 

यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो (८ अक्षराणि) “मृतभु” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-

यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् (८ अक्षराणि) “सनात” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-१

नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य (८ अक्षराणि) “स्त्ययज्ञ(स्य)” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-२

कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम (८ अक्षराणि) “रुसत्त” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-१

प्रथमे पादे अपवादः अन्यथा अनुष्टुभ्-छन्दः in ४-३१

टिप्पण्यः Notes of self-study 

1 Partaking of only यज्ञशिष्टम् was mentioned also in 

यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः ।

भुञ्जते ते त्वघं पापा ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् ॥ ३-१३॥

Note यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः means those who partake of यज्ञशिष्टम् only. There it was mentioned that यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः are सन्त: good people and मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः means that they are cleansed of all blemishes. 

Others who are not यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः, ते पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् their all consumption, all enjoyment is very selfish, they are पापा: sinful, they consume भुञ्जते only घम्, they consume sin, they consume only what is deplorable. They are अयज्ञाः.   

2 Thinking of the word अयज्ञः a novel meaning flashed. 

अयज्ञः is one, 

  • who does not sacrifice anything, 
  • does not try anything different, 
  • is happy staying in his comfort zone, 
  • has no enterprise, 
  • does not venture into taking any risk. 

There is the famous quote of Mr. Shiv Khera, “Winners do not do different things; they do things differently”. 

To do things differently, you have to dare. You need to get out of your comfort zone. You have to cultivate the skill and the habit to think out of the box. That is यज्ञः. 

If you are अयज्ञः, you can’t win. अयज्ञस्य अयम् लोक: न अस्ति !

3  A similar quote one hears in dialogues in Hindi films is कुछ पाने के लिये कुछ खोना पडता है “to attain something, you have to sacrifice something”. 

4 Comes to mind another great poem “THINKING” attributed to Walter D. Wintle 

If you think you are beaten, you are;

If you think you dare not, you don’t.

If you’d like to win, but you think you can’t,

It is almost a cinch you won’t.

If you think you’ll lose, you’ve lost;

For out in this world we find

Success begins with a fellow’s will

It’s all in the state of mind.

If you think you’re outclassed, you are;

You’ve got to think high to rise.

You’ve got to be sure of yourself before

You can ever win the prize.

Life’s battles don’t always go

To the stronger or faster man;

But sooner or later the person who wins

Is the one who thinks he can!

Summary of this poem is नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य. 

अयज्ञः is a person, who is not sure of himself. 

Success begins with a fellow’s will

True यज्ञ: is sacrificing all minor, frivolous pleasures. 

If you think you dare not, you don’t.” 

True winning is attaining सनातनम् ब्रह्म. 

That is the nectar अमृतम्. 

But it is always यज्ञशिष्टम् always after sacrificing all minor, frivolous pleasures. 

You’ve got to be sure of yourself before 

You can ever win the prize.

True winning is attaining सनातनम् ब्रह्म. 

You’ve got to think high to rise”. 

5 There is the clarion call in कठोपनिषत् – उत्तिष्ठत arise जाग्रत awake प्राप्यवरान्निबोधत get to know what meritorious objectives are and strive to attain them. Striving to attain meritorious objectives is performing यज्ञ:. Not doing so is being अयज्ञः. 

Let me never be अयज्ञः.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

A better formatted write-up is at

https://geetaabhyaasa.blogspot.com/2021/11/4-31.html

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