गीताभ्यासे 2-66 नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य  

ॐ 

नमो नम: 

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥२- ६६॥ 

(१) पदच्छेदा: 

न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य न च अयुक्तस्य भावना न च अभावयतः शान्तिः अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥२- ६६॥

(२) वाक्यांशशः   

अनुक्र. अव्ययाः  अन्ये सुबन्ताः  कर्तृपदीयाः  पूरकाः  कर्मपदीयाः  क्रियापदीयाः 
न  अयुक्तस्य  बुद्धिः  अस्ति 
न च  अयुक्तस्य  भावना (अस्ति)
न च  अभावयतः  शान्तिः  (अस्ति)
कुतः  अशान्तस्य  सुखम्  (अस्ति)

(३) पदाभ्यासा: 

१) न 

२) अयुक्तस्य अयुक्त वि. पुं. ६/१   

 

  • न युक्तः इति अयुक्त: (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) 
  • युक्तः युज्-क्त वि. पुं. १/१
  • ०४.००७४युज् युजँ समाधौ दिवादिः, आत्मनेपदी, अकर्मकः, अनिट्   (to concentrate, to focus, to abstain from senses, to meditate)
  • ०७.०००७युज् युजिँर् योगे रुधादिः, उभयपदी, सकर्मकः, अनिट्   (to bind, to restrain, to join, to unite, to apply, to combine)

 

३) बुद्धिः intellect

४) अस्ति ०२.००६० अस् असँ भुवि अदादिः, परस्मैपदी, अकर्मकः, सेट् लट्लकारः (परस्मैपदम्) प्रथमपुरुषः एकवचनम्  (to be, to exist

५) भावना  स्त्री, क्ली, (भू + णिच् + युच्) ध्यानम् । (यथा, गीतायाम् । २ । ६६ । “नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना । न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥”) पर्य्यालोचनम् । अधिवासनम् । इति मेदिनी । ने, १०१ ॥ त्रिविधा भावना यथा, — 

“त्रिविधा भावना विप्र ! विश्वमेतन्निबोध मे । 

ब्रह्माख्या कर्म्मसंज्ञा च तथा चैवोभयात्मिका ॥

ब्रह्मभावात्मिका ह्येका कर्म्मभावात्मिकापरा । 

उभयात्मिका तथैवान्या त्रिविधा भावभावना ॥

६) च also 

७) अभावयतः अभावयत् वि. पुं. ६/१

 

  • न भावयत् इति अभावयत् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
  • भावयत् भू-णिच् तस्य शतृ-वि. पुं. १/१
  • ०१.०००१भू भू सत्तायाम् भ्वादिः, परस्मैपदी, अकर्मकः, सेट्   (to exist, to become, to be, to happen)
  • १०.०२७७भू भू अवकल्कने चुरादिः, उभयपदी, सकर्मकः, सेट्   (to mix, to think)

 

८) शान्तिः शम्-क्तिन् 

 

  •  ०१.०९२९ शम् शमोँ दर्शने भ्वादिः, परस्मैपदी, सकर्मकः, सेट्   (to look at, to inspect)
  • ०४.००९८ शम् शमुँ उपशमे दिवादिः, परस्मैपदी, अकर्मकः, सेट्   (to be calm, to be pacified, to be quiet)
  • १०.०२१८ शम् शमँ आलोचने चुरादिः, आत्मनेपदी, सकर्मकः, सेट्   (to publish, to advertise, to explain, to clarify)

 

९) अशान्तस्य अशान्त वि. पुं. ६/१

 

  • न शान्तः इति अशान्त: (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) 
  • शान्तः शम्-क्त वि. पुं. १/१

 

१०) कुतः ind. 1 From where, whence

११) सुखम् happiness

(३) अन्वयार्थाः 

(१) न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य 

 

  • By आदिदेवानंद – There is no Buddhi for the unintegrated, 
  • By स्वामी शिवानंद – There is no knowledge of the Self to the unsteady
  • By श्रीपुरोहितस्वामी – Right discrimination is not for him who cannot concentrate.
  • By स्वामी गंभीरानंद – For the unsteady there is no wisdom
  • By Dr. S. शंकरनारायणन् – The capacity to decide is not for one who is not a master of Yoga

 

(२) न च अयुक्तस्य भावना 

 

  • By आदिदेवानंद – nor for him is there contemplation of the self, 
  • By स्वामी शिवानंद – There is no knowledge of the Self to the unsteady
  • By श्रीपुरोहितस्वामी – Without concentration, there cannot be meditation
  • By स्वामी गंभीरानंद – and there is no meditation for the unsteady man.
  • By Dr. S. शंकरनारायणन् – and concentration of mind is not for one who is not a master of Yoga

 

(३) न च अभावयतः शान्तिः 

 

  • By आदिदेवानंद – and for him without contemplation of the self, there is no peace 
  • By स्वामी शिवानंद – and to the unmeditative there can be no peace
  • By श्रीपुरोहितस्वामी – he who cannot meditate must not expect peace
  • By स्वामी गंभीरानंद – And for an unmeditative man there is no peace.
  • By Dr. S. शंकरनारायणन् – and peace is not for one who does not concentrate

 

(४) अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् 

 

  • By आदिदेवानंद – and for one lacking peace, where is happiness?
  • By स्वामी शिवानंद – and to the man who has no peace, how can there be happiness?
  • By श्रीपुरोहितस्वामी – and without peace, how can anyone expect happiness?
  • By स्वामी गंभीरानंद – How can there be happiness for one without peace?
  • By Dr. S. शंकरनारायणन् – wherefrom could happiness come to one who has no peace ?

 

(४) छन्दोविश्लेषणम् 

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य 

“रयुक्त(स्य)” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-२

न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।

“स्य भाव” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-१
न चाभावयतः शान्ति- 

“यतः शा” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-२

रशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् 

“कुतः सु” एतेषां मात्राः १-२-१

अनुष्टुभ्-छन्द:

(४) स्वाध्यायाः Notes of self-study 

(१) It is always very interesting to study the grammar and etymology of words. I was surprised NOT to find the word भावना in Apte’s dictionary. I got it in शब्दकल्पद्रुमः. However I got intrigued by the etymology (भू + णिच् + युच्). So I checked up another word कल्पना, स्त्री, (कृप् + णिच् + भावे युच् टाप्) Note, here युच् is followed by टाप्. That टाप् explains the ना-ending in both भावना and कल्पना. That टाप् seems to have been inadvertently missed out in the etymology of भावना.

(२) It was interesting to study the word शान्तिः शम्-क्तिन्. As such शान्तिः is a very well-known and commonplace word. But see, शम् has three variants १ प. ४ प. १० आ. with interesting shades of meanings, all of which seem to be relevant here.  

(३) Whereas I did not find भावना in Apte’s dictionary, I did get भाव: for which there are as many as 37 shades of meanings given in Apte’s dictionary. 

With variants in meanings of both शम् and भावना/भाव:, I thought it good to study the different translations by five different persons, as available at <https://www.gitasupersite.iitk.ac.in/>. 

(४) In the phrase न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य the word अयुक्त/अयुक्तस्य is interpreted as 

 

  • the unintegrated by आदिदेवानंद 
  • the unsteady by स्वामी शिवानंद
  • ‘who cannot concentrate’ by श्रीपुरोहितस्वामी
  • ‘For the unsteady’ by स्वामी गंभीरानंद
  • ‘for one who is not a master of Yoga’ by Dr. S. शंकरनारायणन्

 

(५) I thought it good to detail the interpretations phrase by phrase, which helps to note the differences in the interpretations.

(६) I often get grammatical details, especially of धातवः from www.ashtadhyayi.com. I get meanings of words from https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/apte/ and etymologies of words from https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/शब्दकल्पद्रुमः

These are fantastic resources !

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 2 Virtues 

In my write-up on गीताया: Lessons for Life, I made a mention of a 7-point code for परं श्रेय: for most exalted life. The first two points in that code are  

 

  •  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  • Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.

 

For ready reference, below are the श्लोका: from the four अघ्याया: 

(अ) द्वादशाध्यायात् 

अद्वेष्टा सर्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च ।

निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः समदुःखसुखः क्षमी ॥ १२-१३॥

सन्तुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चयः ।

मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥ १२-१४॥

यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोको लोकान्नोद्विजते च यः ।

हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः ॥ १२-१५॥

अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्ष उदासीनो गतव्यथः ।

सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥ १२-१६॥

यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।

शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्यः स मे प्रियः ॥ १२-१७॥

समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः ।

शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः सङ्गविवर्जितः ॥ १२-१८॥

तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनी सन्तुष्टो येन केनचित् ।

अनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्भक्तिमान्मे प्रियो नरः ॥ १२-१९॥

I have also taken two words श्रद्दधान: and मत्परम: from (१२-२०) 

(आ) त्रयोदशाध्यायात् 

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।

आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥ १३-७॥

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहङ्कार एव च ।

जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥ १३-८॥

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।

नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥ १३-९॥

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।

विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥ १३-१०॥

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।…. (१३-११)

(इ) षोडशाध्यायात् 

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः ।

दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥ १६-१॥

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् ।

दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥ १६-२॥

तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।

भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥ १६-३॥

(ई) अष्टादशाध्यायात् 

शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च ।

ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४२॥

शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् ।

दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४३॥

कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम् ।

परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् ॥ १८-४४॥

It comes to mind that it would be good to start making the list of virtues, first with verses 12-13 to 12-19, then extend the list from other verses or add synonyms. 

 

  1. सर्वभूतानाम् अद्वेष्टा (१२-१३) = Not despising any creation 
  2. (सर्वभूतानाम्) मैत्र: (१२-१३) कृषिगोरक्ष(वाणिज्यम्) (१८-४४) = Having friendliness with all creation 
  3. (सर्वभूतानाम्) करुण: (१२-१३) Having empathy unto all creation 
    1. दया भूतेषु (१६-२) compassion unto all creation. Note दया [दय् भिदा-भावे अङ्] Pity, tenderness, compassion, mercy, sympathy
  4. अमानित्वम् (१३-७) नातिमानिता (१६-३) Having no craze to be honoured 
    1. परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म (१८-४४) ready for servitude 
  5. निरहङ्कार: (१२-१३) अनहङ्कार: (१३-८)  = Having no ego 
  6. नित्यं समचित्तत्वम् (१३-१०) = Having equanimity in all respects (नित्यं समचित्तत्वम्) इष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु (१३-१०) = Not being bothered what will befall will be favourable or unfavourable
    1. शुभाशुभपरित्यागी (१२-१७) = Being regardless of good or bad omens
    2. समदु:खसुख: (१२-१३) = Being equanimous with happiness or sorrow 
    3. गतव्यथ: (१२-१६) free of all anxiety 
    4. सम: शीतोष्णसुखदु:खेषु (१२-१८) equanimous unto all dualities of hot or cold, happiness or sorrow
    5. जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदु:खदोषानुदर्शनम् (१३-८) ready to face all events, which would occur by default, such as birth, death, agedness, diseases, sorrows 
    6. सम: शत्रौ च मित्रे च (१२-१८) equanimous unto friends and foes 
    7. सम: मानापमानयो: (१२-१८) equanimous unto honour or dishonour 
    8. तुल्यनिन्दास्तुति: (१२-१९) equanimous unto praise or abuse 
  7. क्षमी (१२-१३) क्षान्ति: (१३-७), (१८-४२) क्षम: (१६-२)  = Pardoning faults 
  8. सततं सन्तुष्ट: (१२-१४) सन्तुष्टो येन केनचित् (१२-१९) Always content 
  9. योगी (१२-१४) striving to be in union with the Supreme यतात्मा (१२-१४) self control 
    1. आत्मविनिग्रह: (१३-७) self control 
    2. यतवाक्कायमानस: (१८-५२) with control over thought, word and deed
    3. दम: (१६-१), (१८-४२) control 
  10. दृढनिश्चय: (१२-१४) determined 
  11. मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धि: (१२-१४) one who has submitted mind and intellect unto me
    1. मद्भक्त: (१२-१४) my devotee
    2. मत्परम: (१२-२०)  respecting Me to be the Supreme 
    3. मयि अनन्ययोगेन भक्ति: अव्यभिचारिणी (१३-१०) having unflinching devotion unto me 
    4. आस्तिक्यम् (१८-४२) respecting existence of God, atheist
    5. ईश्वरभाव: (१८-४३) having thought and respect unto the Supreme 
  12. यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोक: (१२-१५) who is not troublesome 
    1. लोकान्नोद्विजते च य: (१२-१५) who is not troubled by people 
    2. हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्त: (१२-१५) freed of excitement, worry, fear and annoyance 
    3. अभयम् (१६-१) fearlessness 
    4. य: न हृष्यति (१२-१७) who does not get excited 
    5. य: न द्वेष्टि (१२-१७) who does not resent
    6. अद्रोह: (१६-३) non-resentment 
    7. य: न शोचति (१२-१७) does not lament 
    8. अनपेक्ष: (१२-१६) य: न काङ्क्षति (१२-१७) has no desire
    9. असक्ति: (१३-९) non-attachment 
    10. लघ्वाशी (१३-१०) having little expectation
    11. अलोलुप्त्वम् (१६-२) free of hanker
  13. शुचि: (१२-१६) pure, pious 
    1. अदम्भित्वम् (१३-७) unpretentious 
    2. शौचम् (१३-७), (१६-२), (१८-४२) piety 
    3. सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः (१६-१) cleanliness of thought, word and deed 
  14. दक्ष: (१२-१६) alert 
    1. दाक्ष्यम् (१८-४३) alertness 
  15. उदासीन: (१२-१६) disinterested 
    1. इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यम् (१३-८) abstinence of senses 
    2. नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रित: (१८-५२) always observing abstinence 
  16. सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी (१२-१६) forsaking the thought of any undertaking by one’s own volition 
    1. निर्मम: (१२-१३) selfless 
  17. सङ्गविवर्जितः (१२-१८) dissociated 
    1. मित्रदारगृहादिषु अनभिष्वङ्ग: (१३-९) unattached to friend, wife, family 
    2. अरतिर्जनसंसदि (१३-१०) disinterested in social groups
    3. अनिकेत: (१२-१९) homeless, free of bondage of ‘my’ home
    4. विविक्तदेशसेवित्वम् (१३-१०) thoughtful of unfrequented place and state. Note विविक्त p. p. 1 Separated, detached, disjoined, abstracted; -2 Lonely, solitary, retired, sequestered
    5. विविक्तसेवी (१८-५२) thoughtful of the abstract  
  18. मौनी (१२-१९) in penance as of a Muni. Note मौनिन् a. (-नी f.) [मौनमस्यास्ति इनि] Observing a vow of silence, silent, taciturn; -m. A holy sage, an ascetic,
  19. स्थिरमति: (१२-१९) स्थैर्यम् (१३-७) with steadfast intellect 
  20. श्रद्दधान: (१२-२०) upholding faith 
  21. आर्जवम् (१३-७), (१६-१), (१८-४२) [ऋजोर्भावः अण्] 1 Straightness -2 Straightforwardness, rectitude of conduct, uprightness, honesty, sincerity, open-heartedness; आर्जवं कुटिलेषु न नीतिः; -3 Simplicity, humility
    1. अपैशुनम् (१६-२) devoid of पैशुनम् Note पैशुनम्, पैशुन्यम् [पिशुनस्य भावः अण् ष्यञ् वा] 1 Back-biting, slandering, talebearing, calumny; पैशुन्यं साहसं ……क्रोधजोऽपि गणोऽष्टकः Ms.7.48;11.56; Bg.16.2. -2 Roguery, depravity. -3 Wickdness, malignity.
    2. अचापलम् (१६-२) devoid of trickstry, plain, simple, transparent, reliable 
  22. आचार्योपासनम् (१३-७) yearning for proximity with the precept
  23. अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वम् (१३-११) in spiritual pursuit 
    1. तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् (१३-११) seeking philosophical knowledge 
    2. ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थिति: (१६-१) disciplined on the path of knowledge 
    3. ज्ञानविज्ञानम् (१८-४२) knowledge-centric 
  24. दानम् (१६-१), (१८-४३) philanthropy
  25. यज्ञ: (१६-१) ascetic rituals 
  26. स्वाध्याय: (१६-१) self-study 
  27. तप: (१६-१), (१८-४२) penance 
  28. तेज: (१६-२), (१८-४३) brilliance 
  29. अहिंसा (१६-२) non-violence 
  30. सत्यम् (१६-२) truthful 
  31. अक्रोध: (१६-२) free of anger 
  32. त्याग: (१६-२) sacrificing 
  33. शान्ति: (१६-२) शम: (१८-४२) calm, at peace 
  34. मार्दवम् (१६-२) softness, kindred, empathetic
  35. ह्री: (१६-२) shy, limited by one’s own convictions 
  36. धृति: (१६-३), (१८-४३) fortitude, patience and tolerance, capacity to take difficulties into stride  
  37. शौर्यम् (१८-४३) bravery 
    1. युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् (१८-४३) not running away from a battle, facing every challenge 

 

 

I have tried to condense the list by grouping qualities, which appealed to me to be very close to each other, almost synonymous. See there are as many as 8 sub-items under (6) all related to equanimity in respect of different dualities. Also there are 11 sub-items under (12) all related to being devoid of excitement, being devoid of over-reaction. 

Some virtues sound contradictory e.g. (29) अहिंसा (१६-२) non-violence and (37) शौर्यम् (१८-४३) bravery. But both would be virtues in their respective contexts. 

In spite of the above list being seemingly exhaustive, it comes to mind that there is virtuous conduct advocated also in 

न बुद्धिभेदं जनयेदज्ञानां कर्मसङ्गिनाम्।

जोषयेत्सर्वकर्माणि विद्वान्युक्त: समाचरन् (३-२६) 

An enlightened person विद्वान् should not confuse बुद्धिभेदं न जनयेत् the ignorant workaholics अज्ञानां कर्मसङ्गिनाम्. 

Himself acting properly युक्त: समाचरन् he should guide all work on the right path सर्वकर्माणि जोषयेत्. 

This seems to be in contradiction with (17-b) अरतिर्जनसंसदि (१३-१०) disinterested in social groups. 

But, what is advocated in (३-२६) is virtuosity, in its own context. 

This means, one can be appropriately virtuous in every other context. In turn, one can be virtuous all the time ! 

Cultivating virtues and practising virtuosity automatically means being free of vices. 

May virtuosity prevail, all the time, everywhere and may the world be a happy place ! 

शुभमस्तु !

 =0=

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 1 Vices 

In my write-up on गीताया: Lessons for Life, I made a mention of a 7-point code for परं श्रेय: for most exalted life. The first two points in that code are 

 

  •  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  • Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.

 

In point (1) about being clean of vices, the श्लोक: mentioned is 

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।

विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥ १८-५३॥

There is a similar line 

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः ।

मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः ॥ १६-१८॥

There are six vices mentioned in the first line in (१८-५३). The word विमुच्य in the second line advocates forsaking the six vices. 

In (१६-१८) in the second line, there is mention of द्वेष: and असूया. 

The six vices are also called as six enemies षड्रिपव: (षट् रिपव:) In Apte’s dictionary, following श्लोक: from किरातार्जुनीयम् is quoted 

कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभो मदमोहौ च मत्सरः..  कृतारिषड्वर्गजयेन … Ki. 1-9

I did not find such exact line in किरातार्जुनीयम्. 

Actually there is similar line in चतुर्दशोऽध्याय: in शिवगीता. 

कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभो मोहो मात्सर्यमेव च । 

मदश्चेत्यरिषडवर्गो ममतेच्छादयोऽपि वा । 

मनोमयस्य कोशस्य धर्मा एतस्य तत्र तु ॥ १४ ॥

Note, here also, there is mention of अरिषड्वर्ग: six enemies. Note अरिषड्वर्ग: (अरि enemy षट् six वर्ग: types)

One may prepare a checklist of vices from the above three quotations.

 

  • अहङ्कार: 1 egotism, sense of self, self-love considered as an अविद्या or spiritual ignorance in Vedānta Phil.; निर्ममो निरहंकारः …स शान्तिमधिगच्छति Bg.2.71,7.4; Ms.1.14; Y.3.177. -2 pride, self-consciousness, self-conceit, haughtiness. -3 (in Sāṅkhya Phil.) the third of the eight producers or elements of creation, i. e. the conceit or conception of individuality, one of the 25 elements; Sāṅ. K.22,24,25; ˚वत् a. selfish, proud 
  • बलम् overpowering, oppressive, violent
  • Note, बलात् ‘perforce’, ‘forcibly’, ‘violently’, ‘against one’s will’
  • दर्प: arrogance, etc.
  • Note, दर्प darpa [दृप् भावे घञ् कर्तरि अच् वा] 1 Pride, arrogance, insolence, haughtiness; भृतो नार्तो न कुर्याद्यो दर्पात्कर्म यथोदितम् (स दण्ड्यः) Ms.8.215; Bg.16.4. -2 Rashness. -3 Vanity, conceit. -4 Sullenness, sulkiness. -5 Heat
  • काम: [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; -2 Object of desire; -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); -5 Desire of carnal gratification, lust;
  • क्रोध: anger, haughtiness
  • परिग्रह: become obliged by accepting or receiving. In Apte’s dictionary ⇒
  • परिग्रहः 1 Seizing, holding, taking, grasping; शङ्कापरिग्रहः Mu.1 ‘taking or entertaining a doubt’. -2 Surrounding, enclosing, encircling, fencing round. -3 Putting on, wrapping round (as a dress); -4 Assuming, taking; मानपरिग्रहः Amaru.97; Receiving, taking, accepting, acceptance; -6 Possessions, property, belongings; Anything received, a present; (Note, I have omitted # 5 to 13) -14 Assent, consent. -15 Taking possession of, acquiring. -16 A claim. -17 Entertaining, honouring, receiving (a guest &c.). Mb.1.195.1. -18 An entertainer. -19 Assistance. -20 A husband. -21 Respect, reverence. -22 Grace, favour. -23 Comprehension, understanding. -24 Undertaking, performing. -25 Subjugation; धर्षितो मत्परिग्रहः Mb.12.320.55. -26 Dominion. -27 Punishment. -28 Connection, relation. -29 Summing up, totality. -30 A house, residence. -31 Removing, taking away. -32 A curse;
  • द्वेष: hatred
  • द्वेषः [द्विष्-भावे घञ्] 1 Hate, dislike, abhorrence, repugnance, distaste; -2 Enmity, hostility, malignity;
  • असूया 1 Envy, intolerance, jealousy (of the happiness of others); क्रुधद्रुहेर्ष्यासूयार्थानां यं प्रति कोपः P.I.4.37; III.4.28; VIII.1.8. सासूयम् enviously. -2 Calumny, detraction (of the merits of others); असूया परगुणेषु दोषाविष्करणम् Sk. (= दोषारोपो गुणेष्वपि Ak.); Ms.7.48; R.4.23. -3 Anger, indignation
  • Note the word असूया is न सूया इति असूया. The word सूया is सूय वि. स्त्री. १/१. सूय is सू+यत्. Meaning of सू is “I. 2, 4 Ā. (सूते, सूयते, सूत) To bring forth, produce, beget, yield (fig. also)”. By that असूया means preventing qualities of others to be brought forth, even resorting to true or false defamation, vindictiveness to achieve the prevention.
  • मत्सर a. [मद्-सरन्; Uṇ.3.73] 1 Jealous, envious. -2 Insatiate, greedy, covetous. -3 Niggardly. -4 Wicked. -5 Selfish, self-interested. -6 Ved. Satisfying. -7 Intoxicating (Ved.). -रः 1 Envy, jealousy; परवृद्धिषु बद्धमत्सराणाम् Ki.13.7; Śi.9.63; Ku.5.17; निन्दन्ति मां सदा लोका धिगस्तु मम जीवनम् । इत्यात्मनि भवेद्यस्तु धिक्कारः स च मत्सरः Kriyāyogasāra. -2 Hostility, enmity -3 Pride -4 Covetousness, greediness. -5 Anger, passion
  •  मद: [मद्-अच्] 1 Intoxication, drunkenness, inebriety
  • लोभः [लुभ्-भावे घञ्] 1 Covetousness, avarice, greed, cupidity; लोभश्चेदगुणेन किम् Bh.2.55; परवित्तादिकं दृष्ट्वा नेतुं यो हृदि जायते । अभिलाषो द्विजश्रेष्ठ स लोभः परिकीर्तितः Padma P. -2 Desire for, longing after (with gen. or in comp.); -3 Avarice personified (one of the six enemies of man). -4 Perplexity, confusion
  • मोह: [मुह् घञ्] 1 Loss of consciousness, fainting, a swoon, insensibility; -2 Perplexity, delusion, embarrassment, confusion; -3 Folly, ignorance, infatuation; -4 Error, mistake. -5 Wonder, astonishment. -6 Affliction

 

I thought it good to copy-paste the meanings from Apte’s dictionary. Some words sound to be synonymous. But there are subtle differences. 

Interestingly, both मद: and मत्सर: are from धातु: मद्. In fact there is also उन्माद: See ⇒ 

 

  • उन्माद unmāda a. 1 Mad, insane. -2 Extravagant. -उन्मादः 1 Madness, insanity; -2 Intense passion, intoxication or extravagance of love; rapturous joy. -3 Lunacy, mania (considered as a disease of the mind); मदयन्त्युद्धता दोषा यस्मादुन्मार्गमाश्रिताः । मानसोऽयमतो व्याधिरुन्माद इति कीर्तितः ॥ Suśr. -4 (In Rhet.) Madness considered as one of the 33 subordinate feelings; चित्तसंमोह उन्मादः कामशोकभयादिभिः (Sahitya-darpaNa 3); or according to RasagangAdhara विप्रलम्भमहापत्तिपरमानन्दादिजन्माऽन्यस्मिन्नन्यावभास उन्मादः.

 

Although the discussion started with six enemies, the above list has 12+2. 

I also noted that antonyms of virtues are vices. For a list of virtues, I have sighted 18 श्लोका: (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44. 

The important point is that eradication of vices needs conscious effort to achieve  change or transformation of character. There is a quotation स्वभावो दुरतिक्रम: (स्वभाव: nature, character is दुरतिक्रम: non-transformable). Character is made of traits of the mind. Transformation of character needs trasformation of the mind. That needs reigning of the mind. But mind is fickle and difficult to reign. That is the question अर्जुन: raises 

चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद् दृढम् ।

तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् ॥ ६-३४॥

O Krsna, the mind is unsteady, turbulent, strong and obstinate. I consider its control to be as greatly difficult as of the wind.

In his response (English Translation By Swami Gambirananda @ gitasupersite.iitk.ac.in)

        श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् ।

अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते ॥ ६-३५॥

The Lord said O mighty-armed one, undoubtedly the mind is untractable and restless. But, O son of Kunti, it is brought under control through practice and detachment. (English Translation By Swami Gambirananda @ gitasupersite.iitk.ac.in)

The two important words are अभ्यासेन and वैराग्येण. 

 

  • अभ्यास: (अभि wholesomely and constantly आस: being at it) wholesomely and constantly reigning the mind, wholesomely and constantly striving to eradicate vices
  • वैराग्यम् (being devoid of अहङ्कार:) practising detachment of ‘I’
  • Never to think ‘I did it’, when thinking of anything of the past
  • Never to think ‘I want it’, when thinking of anything of the future.
  • If one cultivates the aptitude to treat both past and future with such वैराग्यम्, then present is automatically taken care of, because present is very fleecy. By every moment, what is present becomes past.
  • Such वैराग्यम् also needs to be part of our character and that also needs अभ्यास:.

 

श्रीभगवान्, in turn गीता has provided in just two words अभ्यासेन and वैराग्येण guideline to achieve the most difficult task, that of reigning the mind. If so, the guideline should be valid for any other task. 

शुभमस्तु ! 

=0=

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 4-1 Enhance श्रद्धा 

Having said in गीता’s Lessons for Life # 3, that गुणातीतता is a state of  becoming a योगी, the ब्रह्मभूया state, the state of identity with Brahman, absorption or dissolution into Brahman, of final emancipation, the state may be reached by following some guideline. Possibly a good guideline is outlined in points # 4, 5, 6, 7 in the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  1.  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  2. Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  3. Try to transcend virtuosity गुणातीतता also – see 14-22 to 14-26
  4. Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27) 
  5. Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72). 
  6. Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  7. Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

 

It may be taken that points # 4, 5, 6, 7 are in increasing degrees of difficulty. 

As such, to become aware of the concept of परं श्रेय: most exalted life is itself some reward of this human life. We need not worry about how far we can progress. For the present, we may study the points # 4, 5, 6, 7 one by one. 

The eleven श्लोका: mentioned in # 4 are 

 

  • about सात्त्विक: यज्ञ: (17-11) 
  • austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17)
  • philanthropy दानम् (17-20)
  • observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)

 

Actually, prior to (17-11) there are 3 श्लोका: (17-8) to (17-10) about diet आहार:, maybe, because, सात्त्विकाहार: chaste diet preconditions यज्ञ: तप: दानम् to be सात्त्विक. Let me quote the 3 श्लोका: about diet आहार:,

आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।

रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥ १७-८॥

कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः ।

आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥ १७-९॥

यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।

उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥ १७-१०॥

Let us look at (17-8). आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।

 

  • आयुः time of life 
  • सत्त्व chastity
  • बल strength
  • आरोग्य healthiness
  • सुख happiness
  • प्रीति affection, compassion
  • विवर्धनाः making grow
  • आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः enhancing time of life, chastity, strength, healthiness, happiness, affection, compassion to grow

 

रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः

 

  • रस्याः juicy
  • स्निग्धाः lubricating
  • स्थिरा: long-lasting, not suffering decay too soon
  • हृद्या: pleasant
  • आहाराः diet
  • सात्त्विकप्रियाः liked by gentlemen
  • रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः Diet liked by gentlemen is juicy, lubricating, long-lasting, not suffering decay too soon, pleasant.

 

All in all, diet liked by gentlemen is 

 

  • beneficent for enhancing time of life, has chastity, builds strength, healthiness, happiness, affection, compassion 
  • is juicy, lubricating, long-lasting, not suffering decay too soon, pleasant

 

One may think that non-vegetarian diet has less chance to be conducive to happiness, because items in non-vegetarian diet are from such creations, that could not have been happy to become items of diet. 

Conversely, items in vegetarian diet are from such creations, that do not suffer any unhappiness. An apple-tree knows that itself cannot consume the apples. 

Jain diet prohibits consuming anything, which grows below ground. Items that grow below ground are obtained by uprooting. A plant suffering uprooting cannot be happy at that. 

In composing diet, in choosing what to eat and what not to eat, there can be a thought of sensibility and sensitivity.

Maybe, this also is implicit in point #7 of the code for परं श्रेय: most exalted life, viz. “Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32)”. 

This श्लोक: is ⇒ 

आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन ।

सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ॥ ६-३२॥

 

  • अर्जुन Eh Arjuna
  • य: He, who
  • सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं whether being happy or sad
  • सर्वत्र anytime, anywhere
  • आत्मौपम्येन समं by being self-same
  • पश्यति sees, understands
  • स: परम: योगी मतः such person is regarded as परम: योगी

 

That person is regarded as परम: योगी, who sees, understands all instances of being happy or sad by self-same logic.

If I get pain, if somebody inflicts an injury unto me, the goat being slashed to become human diet would of course be in great agony. The chemistry of that agony would devolve into the meat.

On another count once an exhibitor in a rose show said to me, “Oh ! The joy of watching early in the morning, a rose bud opening its petals !” 

Is that anyway different from a child in a cradle flashing a smile ? 

If a child in the cradle flashes a smile, that smile is an exhibition of the child’s faith, that it sees no danger. Isn’t that what faith is ?

As such, the complete सप्तदशोऽध्याय: of गीता seems to delineate enhancement of faith. I have just made a selection of eleven श्लोका:. Let us study श्लोक: (१७-११) ⇒ 

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।

यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥ १७-११॥

Before going into interpretation of this श्लोक:, we should bear in mind what a यज्ञ: is. For that, see ⇒ 

ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् ।

ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ॥ ४-२४॥

A synonym for यज्ञ: is सप्तवस्तु:, what comprises 7 attributes. Here, there is mention of अर्पणम्, हवि:, अग्नि:, होता, गन्तव्यम्, कर्म, समाधि:. 

This is ब्रह्मयज्ञ:, because everything is ब्रह्म ! That is (४-२४). Further on 

दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते ।

ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति ॥ ४-२५॥

श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति ।

शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति ॥ ४-२६॥

सर्वाणीन्द्रियकर्माणि प्राणकर्माणि चापरे ।

आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते ॥ ४-२७॥

Note आत्मसंयमयोग: is a यज्ञ:, which is ज्ञानदीपित, kindled by ज्ञानम्. What is sacrificed, rather, offered is सर्वाणीन्द्रियकर्माणि all involuntary actions and/or प्राणकर्माणि all voluntary actions. 

द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।

स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥ ४-२८॥

There are many other यज्ञा:. 

Note, स्वाध्याय: self-study, as also imparting and/or sharing ज्ञानम् are also स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञा:.

अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे ।

प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ॥ ४-२९॥

अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान्प्राणेषु जुह्वति ।

सर्वेऽप्येते यज्ञविदो यज्ञक्षपितकल्मषाः ॥ ४-३०॥

Those नियताहाराः, who regulate their consumption, not only of what they eat and drink, but also of what they churn in their mind and intellect, they also जुह्वति perform a यज्ञ:. 

All those, who have become क्षपित cleansed of their कल्मषाः maladies are to be regarded as यज्ञविद: knowledgeable of what a यज्ञ: is. 

It is such meaning and knowledge of यज्ञ:, which is to be borne in mind when interpreting and understanding 

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।

यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥ १७-११॥

य: यज्ञ: यष्टव्यम् एव इति मनः समाधाय अफलाकाङ्क्षिभि: विधिदृष्ट: इज्यते, स: सात्त्विकः । 

 

  • य: यज्ञ: That sacrificial ritual
  • यष्टव्यम् एव that it must be performed
  • इति मनः समाधाय so, with mind at peace
  • विधिदृष्ट: conforming to specified procedure, as perceived by the seers
  • अफलाकाङ्क्षिभि: इज्यते is performed by those, who hold no expectations, who have no ulterior motives
  • स: सात्त्विकः (only) such यज्ञ: is chaste यज्ञ:.

 

It comes to mind that doctors, nurses, all the support staff in CORONA hospitals are all याज्ञिका:. 

But any of them indulging in personal gains is a spoil-sport in the fight against the pandemic. 

I did not mark the next two द्वौ श्लोकौ in my 7-point code, because their content is not oriented to परं श्रेय:. 

But knowledge is never complete by knowing only विद्या. For complete knowledge, one must know अविद्या also. This is delineated in ईशावास्योपनिषत्.

Detailed in the next द्वौ श्लोकौ are राजस and तामस यज्ञौ. 

अभिसन्धाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।

इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥ १७-१२॥

 

  • भरतश्रेष्ठ = You, eminent among descendants of भरत
  • फलम् अभिसन्धाय expecting fruits
  • दम्भार्थम् अपि च एव and pretentiously
  • यत् इज्यते performed
  • तम् यज्ञम् तु राजसम् विद्धि know such यज्ञ: to be राजस

 

You, eminent among descendants of भरत, know that यज्ञ: which is performed expecting fruits or gains, and/or performed pretentiously, maybe wanting to show off, lacking sincerity, faith, devotion is only राजस. 

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।

श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥ १७-१३॥

  • विधिहीनम् = not following the specified procedure 
  • असृष्टान्नम् = not sharing the pleasantries. Note, tasks are fulfilled by team-work. The joy of fulfilment has to be shared.
  • मन्त्रहीनम् = devoid of focus
  • अदक्षिणम् = inattentively performed lacking respect
  • श्रद्धाविरहितम् = devoid of faith
  • यज्ञम् = such यज्ञ:
  • तामसम् = as तामस
  • परिचक्षते = is regarded

 

यज्ञ: which is performed devoid of focus, devoid of faith, performed inattentively, lacking respect, not following विधय: the specified procedure, not sharing the pleasantries, is regarded to be तामस. 

स्वाध्याया: 

() I am happy that श्लोक: (४-२८) would endorse my studies to be यज्ञा: and also not तामसयज्ञा:, because I do share the pleasantries. 

() The present worldwide anxiety of CORONA pandemic is so very relevant to understand and faithfully follow the prescribed procedures of social distancing, wearing a mask, observing cleanliness, keeping healthy, improving immunity, etc. The fight against the pandemic is a यज्ञ:. Every citizen of the world is a याज्ञिक:. We must cultivate that श्रद्धा faith and have to be faithful. This faith is not Hindu faith or Christian faith or Muslim faith or any other religion-based faith. CORONA itself afflicts and affects regardless of these manmade faiths. 

गीता also does not preclude that it propagates a faith only for Hindus. It is only the ignorant, who label it as a book for the Hindus. 

Anybody showing slightest राजस or तामस trait is the unfaithful, a traitor. We all have to guard against the traitors. Let us accede to the श्रद्धा that every traitor will only cause prolonging the fight. 

May the creed of सात्त्विकयज्ञ: prevail, not only for the यज्ञ: of fighting the pandemic, but for all यज्ञा: of all of us, all the time, everywhere ! 

शुभमस्तु ! 

=0=

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 4-2 Enhance श्रद्धा

In Part 1 of # 4 Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness, I could discuss only one श्लोक: (१७-११) out of the eleven श्लोका: selected from सप्तदशोऽध्याय: in गीता. 

It would be good to keep in view points # 4, 5, 6, 7 in the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  1.  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  2. Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  3. Try to transcend virtuosity गुणातीतता also – see 14-22 to 14-26
  4. Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27) 
  5. Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72). 
  6. Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  7. Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

 

Of the above, we are discussing point # 4. 

The eleven श्लोका: mentioned in # 4 are 

 

  • about सात्त्विक: यज्ञ: (17-11) 
  • austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17)
  • philanthropy दानम् (17-20)
  • observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)

 

Now we shall study the 4 श्लोका: (17-14) to (17-17) which are as follows ⇒ 

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।

ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥ १७-१४॥

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।

स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥ १७-१५॥

मनःप्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।

भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥ १७-१६॥

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥ १७-१७॥

It can be seen that 

 

  • (१७-१४) details शारीरं तप:
  • (१७-१५) details वाङ्मयं तप:
  • (१७-१६) details मानसं तप:
  • (१७-१७) details सात्त्विकं तप:, which is inclusive of शारीरम्, वाङ्मयम् and मानसं तप:, is also of सात्त्विक grade.

 

Note, तप: means penance. शारीरम्, वाङ्मयम् and मानसं तप: means comprehensive penance of thought, word and deed. I appreciate this English phrase “thought, word and deed”. 

To be inclusive of शारीरम्, वाङ्मयम् and मानसं तप:, it has to include 13 attributes 

 

  • देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनम् doing worship of देव God द्विज the venerables गुरु precepts प्राज्ञ the magi 
  • शौचम् purity and piety
  • आर्जवम् straightforwardness
  • ब्रह्मचर्यम् being focused only and wholesomely on ब्रह्म, in turn, being distanced from everybody else
  • अहिंसा non-violence
  • अनुद्वेगकरम् वाक्यम् non-offensive tongue
  • सत्यम् (वाक्यम्) truthful speech
  • प्रियहितम् (वाक्यम्) speech, which is प्रिय likeable and हितम् beneficent
  • स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनम् engrossed in self-study and practice, exercise, etc.
  • मनःप्रसादः mind being pleasant and at peace
  • सौम्यत्वम् mind being soft and kind
  • मौनम् being silent, taciturn
  • आत्मविनिग्रहः self-control

 

To be सात्त्विकम् when being inclusive of the above 13, it has to be 

 

  • परया श्रद्धया तप्तम् observed with utmost faith also
  • one ought to be अफलाकाङ्क्षी devoid of any expectations and
  • युक्त: entwined with the Supreme.

 

Any deviation from the above would render the तप: to be राजस or तामस. These are detailed as

सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।

क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥ १७-१८॥

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।

परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७-१९॥ 

The deviations occur due to तप: being performed 

 

  • सत्कारमानपूजार्थम् for सत्कार appreciation, मान honour, पूजा to be worshipped
  • दम्भेन pretentiously, not wholeheartedly, with some insincerity
  • मूढग्राहेण being misguided unto आत्मन: पीडा self-torture
  • वा परस्य उत्सादनार्थम् or removal of trouble-makers

 

स्वाध्याया: 

(१) The thought that penance ought to be comprehensive, शारीरम्, वाङ्मयम् and मानसं तप: penance of thought, word and deed has been mooted much much earlier. See 

कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् ।

इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ॥ ३-६॥

पदच्छेदान्वयै: – य: विमूढात्मा कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य मनसा इन्द्रियार्थान् स्मरन् आस्ते स: मिथ्याचारः उच्यते । 

 

  • य: विमूढात्मा that misguided soul 
  • कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य regulating only functionalities of the body
  • मनसा इन्द्रियार्थान् स्मरन् आस्ते has mind engrossed in what will please the senses
  • स: मिथ्याचारः उच्यते that is regarded as false conduct.

 

Rather, the regulation should be first of the mind and by the mind. 

यस्त्विन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन ।

कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगमसक्तः स विशिष्यते ॥३-७॥

पदच्छेदान्वयै: – अर्जुन, य: तु इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्य कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगम् आरभते स: असक्तः विशिष्यते । 

 

  • अर्जुन eh Arjuna
  • य: तु इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्य he, who, by regulating the organs by the mind
  • कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगम् आरभते gets the functional organs to indulge in righteous actions
  • Note कर्मेन्द्रियाणि includes speech organs.
  • स: असक्तः विशिष्यते such unattached person distinguishes himself.
  • The word असक्तः here in (३-७) is akin to  अफलाकाङ्क्षी in (१७-१७)

 

Since mind itself is fickle, making the mind to be the regulator is like making a naughty boy to be the monitor. 

(२) We can say that gist of (१७-१४) to (१७-१७) was already mentioned in (३-६), (३-७). But in (१७-१४) to (१७-१७) it is much more elaborately explained and in (१७-१७) सात्त्विकं तप: is also advocated to be necessarily qualified with परा श्रद्धा utmost faith. 

(३) The mentions of अनुद्वेगकरम् वाक्यम् non-offensive tongue, सत्यम् (वाक्यम्) truthful speech प्रियहितम् (वाक्यम्) speech, which is प्रिय likeable and हितम् beneficent are not to be considered opposite of मौनम् being silent, taciturn. Primary conduct shall be मौनम् being silent, taciturn. However, if one has to speak, the speech shall be अनुद्वेगकरम् वाक्यम् non-offensive tongue, सत्यम् (वाक्यम्) truthful speech प्रियहितम् (वाक्यम्) speech, which is प्रिय likeable and हितम् beneficent

(४) This advocacy that the speech shall be अनुद्वेगकरम् वाक्यम् non-offensive tongue, सत्यम् (वाक्यम्) truthful speech प्रियहितम् (वाक्यम्) speech, which is प्रिय likeable and हितम् beneficent brings to mind a सुभाषितम् 

सत्यं ब्रूयात्प्रियं ब्रूयान्न ब्रूयात्सत्यमप्रियम् । 

प्रियं नानृतं ब्रूयादेष धर्म: सनातन: ॥ 

पदच्छेदै: – सत्यम् ब्रूयात् प्रियम् ब्रूयात् न ब्रूयात् सत्यम् अप्रियम्, प्रियम् न अनृतम् ब्रूयात्, एष: धर्म: सनातन:।

अन्वयार्था: – 

 

  • सत्यम् ब्रूयात् speak the truth 
  • प्रियम् ब्रूयात् speak, what shall be likeable
  • न ब्रूयात् सत्यम् अप्रियम्, do not speak that truth, which would be unlikeable
  • प्रियम् न अनृतम् ब्रूयात् for speaking what is likeable, do no speak untruth
  • एष: धर्म: सनातन: that is the eternal code of righteous conduct.

 

Comes to mind the story of the king, who ordered that everyone must speak musically. Once the parrot, most darling pet of the king dies. There was the problem, how to break the news to the king. The minister takes the challenge upon himself, goes to the king and starts singing 

“Your Majesty, our dear parrot … 

Your Majesty, our dear parrot …

Your Majesty, our dear parrot … … …” 

The king becomes impatient and shouts “What of the parrot?”

The minister sings further “i…. s…. no…. more !!!!”

The king withdrew his order. 

To deliver a message of bitter truth is always very challenging. There the code of “न ब्रूयात् सत्यम् अप्रियम्, do not speak that truth, which would be unlikeable” cannot apply. 

So many people are dying due to COVID 19 pandemic. The relatives have to be informed. The bodies have to be handed over fully sheathed. 

The relatives, rather, all of us who have saved ourselves have to keep observing सात्त्विकं तप: wholesomely, constantly, maybe, endlessly, inexcusably, unexceptionally, परया श्रद्धया with utmost faith. COVID 19 is mandating that to be the universal religion !

शुभमस्तु ! 

-o-O-o-

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 5 – Strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: 

Now we proceed to study गीता’s Lessons for Life # 5 Strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति:.  

Before proceeding further, let us revise the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  1.  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  2. Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  3. Try to transcend also virtuosity गुणातीतता – see 14-22 to 14-26 
  4. Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27) 
  5. Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72). 
  6. Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  7. Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

 

Of the above, we now proceed with point # 5 strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72). 

Actually these 18 श्लोकाः are prefaced by 

अर्जुन उवाच ।

स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।

स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २-५४॥

See https://youtu.be/eaE41vO4JwY 

अर्जुन: उवाच Arjuna said

केशव Eh Keshava

स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा (भवति) What is the definition of one, whose enlightenment is steadfast and who is in deep meditation 

स्थितधीः किम् प्रभाषेत what he speaks about 

किम् आसीत what his contentions are

किम् व्रजेत what he goes about 

What his thought, word and deed are.

        श्रीभगवानुवाच ।

प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।

आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥ २-५५॥

See https://youtu.be/TaCyKWp-1Jc 

श्रीभगवान् उवाच The glorious one said

पार्थ eh son of पृथा 

यदा सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति when one forsakes all desires, that come to mind

तदा then 

आत्मना आत्मनि एव तुष्टः one pleased by himself and within himself 

स्थितप्रज्ञ: उच्यते is called as one with steadfast intellect

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।

वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ २-५६॥

See https://youtu.be/t8oQNKnNCMQ 

दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः (one) whose mind is not agitated by sorrows

सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः who has no desire for happiness

वीतरागभयक्रोधः one from whom राग affection, भय fear and क्रोधः anger वीत have gone away

स्थितधी: (such one) with steadfast intellect 

मुनि: उच्यते is called as Muni.

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।

नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २-५७॥

See https://youtu.be/Q8gvDkmiQSo 

यः सर्वत्रान् अभिस्नेह: one, who is empathy all over

तत् तत् शुभ-अशुभम् प्राप्य whatever शुभ ominous or अशुभम् non-ominous प्राप्य is obtained, whatever comes to his lot 

न अभिनन्दति neither he enjoys

न द्वेष्टि nor does he despise

तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता intellect of such one is steadfast.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २-५८॥

See https://youtu.be/aMlCdWyFBjY 

यदा च अयम् when he 

कूर्म: अङ्गानि संहरते इव just as कूर्म: a tortoise संहरते withdraws अङ्गानि its organs 

इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: सर्वशः (संहरते) withdraws his organs from the senses 

तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता his intellect is steadfast. 

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥ २-५९॥

See https://youtu.be/AuBflCRc6Nk 

निराहारस्य देहिनः of the one, देहिनः embodied and is निराहार non-consuming

विषया: विनिवर्तन्ते the senses go away 

अस्य रस: अपि the sense of taste also 

परम् रसवर्जम् दृष्ट्वा seeing that he is absolutely disinterested in taste 

निवर्तते goes away 

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥ २-६०॥

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।

वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २-६१॥

See https://youtu.be/96OV8BY_SUI 

कौन्तेय Eh, son of कुन्ती 

विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यतत: हि अपि even when the wise man exercises control 

प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि the forceful organs 

मनः प्रसभम् हरन्ति drag the mind 

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य By controlling all the organs 

युक्त: मत्परः आसीत stay entwined and engrossed in me. 

हि यस्य इन्द्रियाणि वशे Because, the one, who has इन्द्रियाणि organs वशे under control 

तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता his intellect is steadfast.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।

सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥ २-६२॥

क्रोधाद्भवति सम्मोहः सम्मोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद् बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥ २-६३॥

See https://youtu.be/0cn0xnsYPCs 

पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायत: As a person keeps interest in senses 

तेषु सङ्ग: उपजायते an attachment develops 

सङ्गात् कामः सञ्जायते By attachment, desire develops 

कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते By (non-fulfilment of) desire, develops anger.

क्रोधात् सम्मोहः भवति Anger leads to delusion 

सम्मोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति) By delusion, memory (of what is learnt to be right) goes awry.

स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाश: (भवति) By memory going awry, intellect (discretion) is lost. 

बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति personality is finished.

रागद्वेषविमुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् । orवियुक्तैस्तु

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥ २-६४॥

रागद्वेषविमुक्तै: (रागद्वेषवियुक्तै:) तु = freed or devoid of affection or hate 

आत्मवश्यै: इन्द्रियै: = with organs under control 

विषयान् चरन् = so executing actions 

विधेयात्मा = person with such conduct 

प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति = attains contentment.

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते।

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥२-६५॥

प्रसादे = by contentment

अस्य = his 

सर्वदुःखानाम् हानि: = all sorrows are eliminated 

उपजायते = as a corollary

प्रसन्नचेतस: = of one with contented mind 

बुद्धिः = intellect 

आशु = soon 

पर्यवतिष्ठते हि = certainly is steadfast. 

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।

न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥ २-६६॥

अयुक्तस्य बुद्धि: न अस्ति = inept has no intellect 

अयुक्तस्य भावना च (न अस्ति) = inept has no sensitivity, no sensibility 

अभावयतः शान्ति: च न (अस्ति) = insensitive has no peace 

अशान्तस्य सुखम् कुतः (अस्ति) = can one not at peace be happy ?

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते ।

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥ २-६७॥

इन्द्रियाणाम्  हि चरताम् = with organs wandering

मनः यत् अनुविधीयते = how the mind behaves 

वायु: अम्भसि नावम् (हरति) इव = like a boat in a storm 

तत् अस्य प्रज्ञाम् हरति = his discretion is lost 

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २-६८॥

महाबाहो = eh Arjuna, 

तस्मात् = hence 

यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: सर्वशः निगृहीतानि = one, all organs of whom are totally withdrawn from the senses 

तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता = his intellect is steadfast.

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥ २-६९॥

या सर्वभूतानाम् निशा = the time, which is night-time for all creation 

तस्याम् (वेलायाम्) संयमी जागर्ति = in that time, the self-controlling one stays awake 

यस्याम् (वेलायाम्) भूतानि जाग्रति = that time when creations are awake 

सा पश्यत: मुनेः निशा = that is night time of ever alert Muni. 

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं

        समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे

        स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥ २-७०॥

यद्वत् = just as 

आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम् = into the tranquil ocean 

आपः प्रविशन्ति waters keep flowing in

तद्वत् = like that 

सर्वे कामाः = all desires 

यम् (अचलप्रतिष्ठम्) प्रविशन्ति = flow into whom, without causing any ripples 

स शान्तिम् आप्नोति = he gets peace 

कामकामी (शान्तिम्) न (आप्नोति) = one getting desires kindled cannot attain peace.

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान्पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।

निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥ २-७१॥

यः पुमान् = he, the manly one 

सर्वान् कामान् विहाय = by forsaking all desires 

निःस्पृहः चरति = goes about not wanting anything 

स: = such person 

निर्मम: निरहङ्कारः = selfless and free of ego 

शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति = attains peace. 

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।

स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥ २-७२॥

पार्थ = Eh, son of पृथा 

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः = this is the state of oneness with ब्रह्मन् 

एनाम् प्राप्य न विमुह्यति = having attained such state, there is no distraction

अन्तकाले अपि अस्याम् स्थित्वा = being in this state at the time of last breath  

ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति = one merits assimilation into ब्रह्मन्. 

स्वाध्याया: 

() In his question in (२-५४) Arjuna uses the words स्थितप्रज्ञः, स्थितधीः. In (२-५५) श्रीकृष्णभगवान् replies using the word स्थितप्रज्ञः. But श्रीकृष्णभगवान् possibly did not want to close with a short, curt reply. The delineation continues with 17 more श्लोकाः. 

() In four श्लोकाः (२-५७), (२-५८), (२-६१) and (२-६८) the phrase at the end is प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता. In श्लोकौ (२-५८) and (२-६८) the complete second line इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता is identical. 

() The crux of the matter is that mind and in turn the organs are susceptible to misbehaviour and have to be kept under control. Of course it is easier said than done. 

() It is not that we do not practise withdrawing organs from senses. We do turn deaf ear to something we do not want to listen to. If our physician has advised that sugary, sweet things are not good for our diabetic malady, we desist from eating such things. These are selective instances of withdrawing organs from the senses. The important word in both (२-५८) and (२-६८) is सर्वशः totally, not selectively.   

() There are three very beautiful similes. 

 

  • In (२-५८), there is the simile of tortoise withdrawing its organs.
  • In (२-६७) is the simile of a boat in a storm.
  • In (२-७०) is the simile of tranquil ocean even when waters from so many rivers are continuously pouring. We are engulfed with waves. Our mobile filters the waves, which are not compatible with those, which our SIM card can attune with. How about a life without any mobile ? Difficult ? But can it be a tranquil life, with the mobile ? We have to make the choice !

 

() ब्राह्मी स्थिति:, ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम्, परं श्रेयः are possible only after making right choices !

शुभमस्तु ! 

-o-O-o-

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 4-4 Enhance and enrich श्रद्धा with ॐ तत्सत् 

In # 4-1, 4-2, 4-3 about Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness, there has been study of यज्ञ:, तपांसि and दानम्.  

Before proceeding further, let us revise the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  1.  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  2. Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  3. Try to transcend virtuosity गुणातीतता also – see 14-22 to 14-26
  4. Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27) 
  5. Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72). 
  6. Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  7. Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

 

Of the above, we are discussing point # 4. 

The eleven श्लोका: mentioned in # 4 are 

 

  • about सात्त्विक: यज्ञ: (17-11) 
  • austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17)
  • philanthropy दानम् (17-20)
  • observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)

 

We shall proceed to study the श्लोक: (17-23 to 17-27) about observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् which are as follows ⇒ 

ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।

ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥ १७-२३॥

अन्वयार्थाः – 

ॐ तत् सत् इति ब्रह्मणः त्रिविधः निर्देशः स्मृतः 

 

  • ब्रह्मणः त्रिविधः निर्देशः – threefold guideline of ब्रह्म
  • Note ब्रह्मणः is पुँ./नपुं. पञ्चमी/षष्ठी एक. of ब्रह्मन्
  • त्रिविधः – threefold
  • निर्देशः – guideline
  • स्मृतः – is mentioned in स्मृति’s

 

ॐ तत् सत् इति ब्रह्मणः त्रिविधः निर्देशः स्मृतः = ॐ तत् सत् is the threefold guideline of ब्रह्मन् mentioned in स्मृति’s

This raises curiosities about 

 

  •  Is this the only guideline ?
  • In which स्मृति ? Usually पुराणानि are called as स्मृति’s. There are अष्टादश प्रमुखपुराणानि also अष्टादश उपपुराणानि. I shall enlist these in स्वाध्यायाः
  • Is this निर्देशः a general guideline or in any particular context ?

 

Interestingly this ॐ तत् सत् इति ब्रह्मणः त्रिविधः निर्देशः seems to have been imbibed and adopted differently by different people of different calibres. 

तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।

प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥१७-२४॥

तस्मात् ब्रह्मवादिनाम् यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः सततम् ॐ इति उदाहृत्य विधानोक्ताः प्रवर्तन्ते 

 

  • तस्मात् = Hence
  • ब्रह्मवादिनाम् = of those, who indulge in ब्रह्मवाद:
  • यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः = (their) actions/activities of यज्ञ:, दानम्, तपः
  • सततम् ॐ इति उदाहृत्य = always by pronouncing ॐ
  • विधानोक्ताः = conforming to the specified procedures
  • प्रवर्तन्ते – begin and proceed

 

तस्मात् hence ब्रह्मवादिनाम् of those, who indulge in ब्रह्मवाद: (their) यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः actions/activities of यज्ञ:, दानम्, तपः सततम् always प्रवर्तन्ते begin and proceed ॐ इति उदाहृत्य by pronouncing ॐ (and) विधानोक्ताः conforming to the specified procedures.

तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।

दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥१७-२५॥

मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः विविधाः यज्ञतपःक्रियाः दानक्रिया: च तत् इति फलम् अनभिसन्धाय क्रियन्ते 

 

  • मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः = by those desirous of emancipation 
  • विविधाः यज्ञतपःक्रियाः दानक्रिया: च = various actions and activities of यज्ञ:, तपः, दानम्
  • तत् इति = by pronouncing तत्
  • फलम् अनभिसन्धाय = by dissociating from fruits
  • क्रियन्ते = are done

 

मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः by those desirous of emancipation विविधाः यज्ञतपःक्रियाः दानक्रिया: च various actions and activities of यज्ञ:, तपः, दानम् तत् इति by pronouncing तत् (and) फलम् अनभिसन्धाय by dissociating from fruits क्रियन्ते are done.

सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।

प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥१७-२६॥

पार्थ, सद्भावे साधुभावे च एतत् सत् इति प्रयुज्यते तथा प्रशस्ते कर्मणि सत्-शब्दः युज्यते 

 

  • पार्थ = eh, son of पृथा  
  • सद्भावे साधुभावे च = acknowledging सद्भाव: existence (of God) and acknowledging साधुभाव: goodness (of thought, word and deed)
  • एतत् सत् इति प्रयुज्यते = it is imbibed and abided by प्रयुज्यते as “this is सत्”
  • तथा प्रशस्ते कर्मणि = also in respect of adorable प्रशस्ते actions and activities कर्मणि
  • सत्-शब्दः युज्यते = the word सत् is mentioned युज्यते.

 

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।

कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥१७-२७॥

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सत् इति उच्यते च 

 

  • यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः = steadfastness स्थितिः at यज्ञः sacrificial performances, तपः austere penance, दानम् philanthropy
  • सत् इति उच्यते च = is called as सत् chastity only.

 

तदर्थीयम् एव कर्म च सत् इति एव अभिधीयते 

 

  • तदर्थीयम् एव कर्म च = every action in this regard
  • सत् इति एव अभिधीयते = is also called as सत् only.

 

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।

असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥१७-२८॥

पार्थ, यत् अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च असत् इति उच्यते 

 

  • पार्थ = eh, son of पृथा 
  • यत् = whatever
  • अश्रद्धया = devoid of faith (self-conviction)
  • हुतम् sacrificed दत्तम् donated तप: तप्तम् penance observed कृतम् any action performed च
  • असत् इति उच्यते = is called as untrue, untruthful

 

तत् न उ इह (श्रेयः) न च प्रेत्य (श्रेयः) 

 

  • तत् न उ इह (श्रेयः) = that is not merit-worthy here in this life 
  • न च प्रेत्य (श्रेयः) = nor that is merit-worthy on प्रेत्य passing away

 

स्वाध्याया: 

(१) The अष्टादश महापुराणानि are enumerated in a श्लोकः ⇒ 

मद्वयं भद्वयं चैव ब्रत्रयं वचतुष्टयम् 

अनापलिङ्ग कूस्कानि पुराणानि पृथक् पृथक् 

 

  • मद्वयम् (2) = मत्स्य+मार्कण्डेय 
  • भद्वयम् (2) = भविष्य+भागवत
  • ब्रत्रयम् (3) = ब्रह्माण्ड+ब्रह्मवैवर्त+ब्राह्म
  • वचतुष्टयम् (4) = वामन+वराह+विष्णु+वायु
  • अनापलिङ्ग (5) = अग्नि+नारद+पद्म+लिङ्ग+गरुड
  • कूस्कानि (2) = कूर्म+स्कन्द.

 

अष्टादश उपपुराणानि are ⇒ 

 

  • सनत्कुमार, नरसिंह, स्कन्द, शिवधर्म, आश्चर्य, नारदीय, 
  • कापिल, वामन, औशनस, ब्रह्माण्ड, वारुण, कालिका,
  • माहेश्वर, साम्ब, सौर, पराशर, मारीच and भार्गव

 

Some observations about the two lists ⇒ 

 

  • How come महाभारतम् and देवीभागवतम् are not at all mentioned ? 
  • वामन, ब्रह्माण्ड and स्कन्द seem to be having both महापुराण and उपपुराण versions ?! Maybe नारद and नारदीय are also महापुराण and उपपुराण versions.
  • मत्स्य, कूर्म, वराह, वामन, भागवत among महापुराणानि and नरसिंह, भार्गव in उपपुराणानि cover 7 out of 10 अवताराः of विष्णु. Their content may be repeated in विष्णुपुराणम्.
  • The three अवताराः not covered are श्रीराम, बुद्ध, कलि.
  • श्रीरामायणम् is said to have been composed before श्रीरामावतारः. Hence it does not qualify to be called (पुरा+आनम् =) पुराणम् it so happened long time ago.
  • If it is considered that भगवान् गौतम बुद्ध is बुद्धावतार, chronologically it belongs to कलियुगम्, which commenced after द्वापारयुगम्, which witnessed श्रीकृष्णावतार. कलियुगम् is still continuing. So, even theoretically, there cannot be any पुराणम् about any अवतारः of कलियुगम्

 

(२) In श्लोकाः (१७-२४) to (१७-२७) is detailed how ॐ तत्सत् is imbibed and abided by 

 

  • ब्रह्मवादिभिः – ॐ इति सततम् उदाहृत्य 
  • मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः – तत् इति फलम् अनभिसन्धाय and
  • सद्भाविभिः साधुभाविभिः च – by focus on सत्

 

Looks like ॐ तत् and सत् have a gradation corresponding to the gradation of 

 

  • (ॐ) ब्रह्मवादिनः those speaking and thinking only about ब्रह्म, 
  • (तत्) मोक्षकाङ्क्षिणः those aspiring for मोक्ष i.e. emancipation and
  • (सत्) सद्भाविनः साधवः those striving for goodness all the time, i.e. engrossed in worldly matters to be good.

 

Nevertheless they all have their own श्रद्धा. 

 

  • ब्रह्मवादिनाम् श्रद्धा is ॐ (इति उदाहृत्य)
  • मोक्षकाङ्क्षिणाम् श्रद्धा is तत् (इति फलम् अनभिसन्धाय)
  • सद्भाविनां साधूनां श्रद्धा is सत् (सद्भावे साधुभावे च, यज्ञे, तपसि दाने च प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा)

 

समापनवाक्यम् the end-note of every अध्यायः of गीता is श्रद्धापूर्णम् because it begins with ॐ तत्सत् which seems to connote श्रद्धात्रयम् the triad of श्रद्धा. 

If ॐ तत्सत् is ब्रह्मण: त्रिविध: निर्देश:, it is all about श्रद्धात्रयम् i.e. have one श्रद्धा or the other or best is that have all three the complete श्रद्धात्रयम् !

That can be taken to be the significance of समापनवाक्यम् the end-note of every अध्यायः of गीता beginning with ॐ तत्सत्. 

(३) When interpreting न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह, almost every interpreter seems to take श्रेयः (= merit-worthy) to be implicit – तत् न उ इह (श्रेयः) न च प्रेत्य (श्रेयः). Anything हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् becomes unworthy of merit, if it is अश्रद्धया कृतम् devoid of faith. 

 

  • The phrase हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तम् encompasses यज्ञः, दानम्, तपः what we have discussed earlier. 

 

(४) The phrase “Anything हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् becomes unworthy of merit, if it is अश्रद्धया devoid of faith” has a negative tone. By affirmative tone, it means that, for anything to be merit-worthy, what is important is that it should be श्रद्धायुक्तम् कृतम् done faithfully, rather, श्रद्धापूर्णम् कृतम्.    

(५) What is done अश्रद्धया, that is called असत्. That brings to mind the prayer असतो मा सद्गमय “Lead me from untruth to truth”. The way to traverse from untruth to truth is to imbibe the paradigm shift from अश्रद्धा to श्रद्धा. 

(६) Comes to mind another beautiful poem THINK by Walter D. Wintle, a poet who lived in the late 19th and early 20th century

The man who wins 

is the man, 

who thinks, 

he can. 

That is what श्रद्धा is. So, enhance and enrich श्रद्धा with श्रद्धात्रयम् for परं श्रेयः !

शुभमस्तु ! 

-o-O-o-

Studying गीता and commentaries thereof 

I have been studying गीता primarily by its original Sanskrit text. But there are commentaries on गीता, which also merit a study. But the commentaries are so many that one has to make one’s own selection of which commentaries to study. I would like to study commentaries by acclaimed and accomplished persons. Among such commentaries come to mind 

 

  1. शाङ्करभाष्यम् by श्रीमानादिशङ्कराचार्यः about 810 AD
  2. श्रीभाष्यम् by श्रीमान् रामानुजाचार्यः (1017-1137)
  3. भावार्थदीपिका / ज्ञानेश्वरी by संत ज्ञानेश्वर 1290 
  4. दासबोध by संत रामदास (1608-1681). Actually दासबोध means advice to a servant. गीता is advice by कृष्ण to अर्जुन.
  5. गीतारहस्य तथा कर्मयोगशास्त्र by लोकमान्य टिळक 1915 
  6. Essays on the गीता by योगी ओरोबिन्दो 1922
  7. Booklets ‘अनासक्तियोग i.e. योग by detachment’ and गीताबोध by महात्मा गांधी 1930
  8. गीता-प्रवचने by विनोबा 1932. He also composed गीताई, an equal meter translation into Marathi.
  9. गीता as a philosophy of God-realisation by गुरुदेव रानडे of निंबाळ, 1956  
  10. गीता As It is – by A. C. भक्तिवेदान्त स्वामी 1971
  11. गीतादर्शन Discourses by Osho (11 December 1931 – 19 January 1990)

May I add my own 9 articles (also 9 YouTube videos) on गीता’s Lessons for Life ?!

 

Interestingly the first three are rather old and the rest of them all from the twentieth century. 

Another major distinction is that the first three are of verse-by-verse style. Those at # 10 and 11 are also similar.

Those at # 5, 6, 7 and 9, delineate on topics chosen by the authors. 

गीतारहस्य is sort of a bridge between the two styles, because it details the verse-by-verse style also.

गीता-प्रवचने by विनोबा at #8 delineates chapter-by-chapter instead of verse by verse.

दासबोध by संत रामदास at # 4 is an independent composition. But one may be able to draw a good number of parallels between दासबोध and गीता. 

Among all the commentaries, गीतारहस्य merits a special mention that an index of abbreviations mentions a list of 39+ references sighted in गीतारहस्य. In fact a footnote mentions that there are many other Sanskrit, English, Marathi and Pali books referred to and their references are quoted at respective places, instead of making the index too long. I wonder whether there is any other author, who can claim to have studied so many books. The index of 39 abbreviations does include #1, 3 and 4, which are chronologically prior to गीतारहस्य at # 5. 

The most extensive commentary, however, seems to be गीतादर्शन Discourses by Osho. The book on 43 verses of Chapter 3 alone runs into 351 pages. Another book on (47+72=) 119 verses of Chapters 1 and 2 runs into 594 pages. At an average of 5.5 pages per verse, गीतादर्शन Discourses may be making some 3800+ pages delineating on the 700 verses of गीता. 

The भावार्थदीपिका / ज्ञानेश्वरी by संत ज्ञानेश्वर is a poetic composition of some 9000+ verses for the 700 verses of गीता.

The titles 

 

  • (गीतारहस्य तथा) कर्मयोगशास्त्र by लोकमान्य टिळक, 
  • ‘अनासक्तियोग i.e. योग by detachment’ by महात्मा गांधी  and
  • गीता as a philosophy of God-realisation by गुरुदेव रानडे

 

make clear what specific perception of गीता appeals to these authors. 

My own perception is that गीता offers us Lessons for life and Lessons about how to strive for the most exalted life. When I was reading Stephen Covey’s ‘7 Habits of Highly Effective People’ it often came to mind that most of what is said there is already there in गीता. I said as much to Mr. Guru Parulkar, who had prompted me to read ‘7 Habits’ way back in 2005. At that time he had asked me, ‘Is there a book detailing how गीता is useful to lead one’s life ?’ I am happy that now in 2020 I have been able to compile my 

 

 

on “गीता’s Lessons for life, for the most exalted life, for परं श्रेयः”. 

Of course, it is one thing to compile those articles. It is another thing to absorb, assimilate and imbibe them in one’s own life. Robert Frost rightly said, “There are miles to go before I sleep, There are miles to go before I sleep.” I may tread the miles continuing my studies of गीता and of commentaries thereof. There is so much to study, to absorb, assimilate and imbibe !

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

गीता’s Lessons for Life Points # 6, 7 – Asurrender and Empathy

Now we proceed to study गीता’s Lessons for Life

Point # 6 Asurrender (see 9-34) and Point # 7 Empathy (see 6-32).  

Before proceeding further, let us revise the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  •  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  • Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  • Try to transcend also virtuosity गुणातीतता – see 14-22 to 14-26
  •  Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)
  •  Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72).
  •  Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  •  Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

Of the above, we now proceed with point # 6 Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34). The श्लोकः is ⇒  

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।

मामेवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवमात्मानं मत्परायणः ॥ ९-३४॥

मन्मनाः मद्भक्तः मद्याजी भव 

 

  • मन्मनाः = one whose mind is totally in Me 
  • मद्भक्तः = one who has become My devotee
  • मद्याजी = one who submits all offerings unto Me
  • भव = be like that

 

माम् नमस्कुरु = pay obeisances unto Me 

एवम् आत्मानम् मत्परायणः युक्त्वा = this way, making oneself fully engrossed in Me 

माम् एव एष्यसि = you will come unto Me only.

By using first person pronoun ‘I’, श्रीकृष्णभगवान् is declaring Himself to be the Supreme, the Almighty, the God incarnate. 

In this श्लोकः, the words मन्मनाः, मद्भक्तः, मद्याजी, मत्परायणः and also the diktat माम् नमस्कुरु together become a wholesome guideline, rather a diktat, how, only by becoming wholly assurrender, and wholly engrossed, one can aspire to reach Him माम् एव एष्यसि. Biographies of saints exemplify this. By such practice, they gain powers सिद्धयः to perform miracles, i.e. perform superhuman acts. Of course the aim of any spiritual pursuit can never be to attain any सिद्धिः. The aim ought to be only to reach Him माम् एव एष्यसि.

To my mind the most difficult state is to be equanimous unto all creations. That is why I take it to be the seventh point. How can I be equanimous unto a mosquito and myself ? 

But the other day I got on WhatsAp a story of रामकृष्ण परमहंस the spiritual precept of स्वामी विवेकानन्द. In his last days रामकृष्ण परमहंस was troubled by cancer-like malady. One शिष्यः asked him, why he does not cure himself, what with the miraculous powers सिद्धयः at his command. Reply of रामकृष्ण परमहंस was very cryptic. He said, “What to do, the malady also is Me only !”. I wonder whether there is any better example of equanimity unto all creations. That is what is advocated in the following श्लोकः ⇒ 

        आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन ।

सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ॥ ६-३२॥

अर्जुन = Eh अर्जुन 

यः सर्वत्र = he, who all across, at all times 

सुखम् वा यदि वा दुःखम् = whether experiencing happiness or sorrow 

आत्मौपम्येन समम् = equal to himself 

पश्यति = sees 

सः परमः योगी मतः = such योगी is regarded to be परमः योगी. 

That seems to be the significance of समाधिः the last, the ultimate, the eighth state of अष्टाङ्गयोगः. 

One popular meaning of समाधिः is meditative practise or state.

But समाधिः is also समा+धिः equanimity of intellect. 

Rather, समाधिः is both the practise and the state. 

Having presented a study of all the seven points, it would be good to recall my suggestion that the following six श्लोकाः from (१८-५१) to (१८-५६) seem to summarise all the seven points. 

बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च ।

शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च ॥१८-५१॥

विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः ।

ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः ॥ १८-५२॥

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।

विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥ १८-५३॥

Note, the words and phrases in the three श्लोकाः are parts of a single sentence. The words and phrases are identified at (१) to (११), also (अ) below. 

(१) विशुद्धया बुद्ध्या युक्त: 

 

  • One should become युक्त: entwined (with the Supreme) and with विशुद्धा clear and pure बुद्धिः intellect

 

(२) आत्मानं धृत्या नियम्य च = by exercising self-control with fortitude.  

(३) शब्दादीन् विषयान् त्यक्त्वा 

 

  • Note शब्दादीन् is पुँ. २/३ of शब्दादि वि. शब्द &c. i.e. the 5 विषयाः sensations शब्द-रूप-रस-गन्ध-स्पर्श. The विषयाः distract and lead awry and hence have to be shirked. 

 

(४) रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च 

 

  • Note व्युदस्य is ल्यबन्तम् of व्युदस् (वि+उत्+अस्) ४ प. To cast away
  • व्युदस् (वि+उत्+अस्) is a forceful, determined action, which is so required to cast away रागद्वेषौ.
  • रागद्वेषौ = राग attachment and द्वेष hate.
  • Both राग and द्वेष have to be cast away.
  • One should cultivate disinterestedness.

 

(५) विविक्तसेवी = taking resort सेवी at a forlorn विविक्त place

(६) लघ्वाशी is पुं. १/१ of लघ्वाशिन् (लघ्वी आशा अस्य अस्तीति) having frugal needs, expectations. 

(७) यतवाक्कायमानसः = having यत controlled वाक्-काय-मानसम् word, deed, thought. 

(८) ध्यानयोगपर: = engrossed in meditation 

(९) नित्यम् always वैराग्यम् renunciation समुपाश्रितः so resolved 

(१०) अहङ्कारम् ego बलम् excessiveness दर्पम् arrogance कामम् craving क्रोधम् anger परिग्रहम् accepting and becoming obliged or indebted विमुच्य forsaking these vices 

(११) निर्ममः one, who has no ‘me, my, mine’ शान्त: at peace 

(अ) ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते aspires for merger into ब्रह्मन्.

ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।

समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् ॥ १८-५४॥

(आ) ब्रह्मभूतः one who has become one with ब्रह्मन्

(१२) प्रसन्नात्मा a soul that has so settled 

(१३) न शोचति न काङ्क्षति does not lament anything nor craves for anything.

(१४) समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु Equal unto all creation 

(१५) पराम् मद्भक्तिम् लभते gets my ultimate devotion

भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः ।

ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम् ॥ १८-५५॥

(१६) भक्त्या माम् अभिजानाति by that devotion understands 

(१७) यावान् यः च अस्मि तत्त्वतः who, what I truly am. 

(इ) तत: माम् तत्त्वत: ज्ञात्वा On knowing the truth of me 

(ई) विशते तदनन्तरम् enters my abode.

सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः ।

मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम् ॥१८-५६॥

(१८) सर्वकर्माणि अपि सदा मद्व्यपाश्रयः कुर्वाण: 

 

  • कुर्वाण: सर्वकर्माणि अपि performing all acts 
  • सदा मद्व्यपाश्रयः as always vested in me

 

(उ) मत्प्रसादात् by my grace 

(ऊ) शाश्वतम् अव्ययम् पदम् अवाप्नोति attains the permanent, undulating state.

स्वाध्याया: 

(१) I have identified 24 phrases from the 6 श्लोकाः (१८-५१) to (१८-५६), 

 

18 that are numbered relate to the 7-point plan for परं श्रेयः – 

  • (1) eliminate दुर्गुणा: vices – see phrase (१०)
  • (2) cultivate सद्गुणा: virtues – see phrases (५), (८), (९)
  • (3) गुणातीतता transcend virtuosity – see phrases (११) to (१३)
  • (4) enhance श्रद्धा faith – see phrases (७), (८)
  • (5) स्थितप्रज्ञता make intellect steadfast – see phrases (१) to (४), (६)
  • (6) मद्याजी perform all activities as offerings unto Him – see phrases (१५) to (१७)
  • (7) सम: सर्वेषु भूतेषु cultivate equanimity with all creation – see phrase (१४)

6 are denoted alphabetically from (अ) to (ऊ) and are related to being emancipated, being one with ब्रह्मन्, getting to know Him as what He truly is, which mean परं श्रेयः.

 

(२) Some phrases may be relevant for more than one points, because points such as 

 

  • (2) cultivate virtues (4) enhance faith (6) perform all activities as offerings unto Him are closely interrelated. 
  • Points (3) transcend virtuosity (5) make intellect steadfast (7) cultivate equanimity with all creation are also closely interrelated.

 

(३) As such, it would be good to memorize the 6 श्लोकाः from (१८-५१) to (१८-५६), since they can serve as a checklist to keep oneself on track all the time. 

(४) These 6 श्लोकाः from (१८-५१) to (१८-५६) may rather be considered as a prayer to seek His blessings that one may continuously progress on the path of spiritualism, unto परं श्रेयः. 

शुभमस्तु ! 

-o-O-o-

 

गीता’s Lessons for Life # 4-3 Enhance श्रद्धा with सात्त्विकं दानम्

ॐ 

नमो नम: 

In # 4-1 + 4-2 about Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness, there has been study of यज्ञ: and तपांसि. 

Before proceeding further, let us revise the 7-point code for परं श्रेय:, for most exalted life ⇒ 

 

  •  Strive to be clean of all vices, what is detailed as आसुरी सम्पद् in 16th chapter, somewhat summarized in (18-53)
  • Cultivate virtues दैवी सम्पद् – see (अ) 12-13 to 12-19 (आ) 13-7 to 13-11, (इ) 16-1 to 16-3, (ई) 18-42 to 18-44 Some virtues repeat in these four lists. Actually antonyms of virtues are vices.
  • Try to transcend virtuosity गुणातीतता also – see 14-22 to 14-26
  •  Enhance श्रद्धा faithfulness by practising sacrificial rituals यज्ञा: (17-11), austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17) philanthropy दानम् (17-20) observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)
  •  Cultivate organs to stay steadfast against inflictions by senses इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य: इन्द्रियाणि सर्वश: निगृहीतव्यानि and strive for ब्राह्मी स्थिति: (2-55 to 2-72).
  •  Live all life as offerings unto Him (9-34)
  •  Cultivate self-same-ness with the entire creation आत्मौपम्यम् सर्वत्र (6-32).

 

Of the above, we are discussing point # 4. 

The eleven श्लोका: mentioned in # 4 are 

 

  • about सात्त्विक: यज्ञ: (17-11) 
  • austerity तप: (17-14 to 17-17)
  • philanthropy दानम् (17-20)
  • observing and imbibing the philosophy of ॐ तत् सत् (17-23 to 17-27)

 

We shall proceed to study the श्लोक: (17-20) about philanthropy दानम् which is as follows ⇒ 

दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।

देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥ १७-२०॥

Since this श्लोक: details सात्त्विकं दानम्, it would be good to understand राजसं and तामसं दानम् also, which are detailed in the next द्वौ श्लोकौ ⇒  

यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।

दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥ १७-२१॥

अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।

असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७-२२॥

पदच्छेदा: and अन्वयार्था: ⇒ 

यत् दानम् दातव्यम् इति देशे काले च पात्रे च अनुपकारिणे दीयते तत् दानम् सात्त्विकम् स्मृतम् (१७-२०) 

 

  • यत् दानम् = that gifting
  • दातव्यम् इति = ‘should be given’ as such
  • देशे काले च पात्रे च = (with the context of) place, time and receiver
  • अनुपकारिणे दीयते = is given with no thought of repayment, with no thought of obliging
  • तत् दानम् सात्त्विकम् स्मृतम् = such gifting is called as ‘chaste gifting’ सात्त्विकम् दानम्

 

यत् दानम् तु प्रत्युपकारार्थम् फलम् उद्दिश्य वा पुन: परिक्लिष्टम् च दीयते तत् (दानम्) राजसम् स्मृतम् (१७-२१) 

 

  • यत् दानम् तु = but that gifting
  • प्रत्युपकारार्थम् = (given) with the thought of obliging
  • फलम् उद्दिश्य वा = or with some ulterior motive
  • पुन: परिक्लिष्टम् च दीयते = and is given with complexities (of conditions)
  • तत् (दानम्) राजसम् स्मृतम् = such gifting is called as राजसम्.

 

यत् असत्कृतम् अवज्ञातम्  दानम् अदेशकाले अपात्रेभ्य: च दीयते तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम् (१७-२२) 

 

  • यत् असत्कृतम् अवज्ञातम् दानम् 
  • असत्कृतम् = having improprieties
  • अवज्ञातम् = having meanness
  • अदेशकाले अपात्रेभ्य: च दीयते
  • अदेशकाले = having improper contexts of time and place
  • अपात्रेभ्य: = given to undeserving receivers
  • तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम् = such philanthropy is called as तामसम् दानम्.

 

स्वाध्याया: 

(१) When we think of दानम्, most commonly we think of gifting money, donating cash. But one can donate many things. आचार्य विनोबा traveled the length and breadth of the country seeking भूदानम्. His basic idea was land for the landless. I need not go into the status of all the land that was donated.

(२) Soldiers at all times do जीवदानम्. Speaking of the army in his camp दुर्योधनः says मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः (गीता 1-9) ‘those who have put their lives at stake for me’.

(३) There are many organizations offering opportunities for donating for a social cause 

 

  • The Salvation Army collects household items to distribute to the needy.
  • Motto of Boy Scouts is ‘Be prepared’ for volunteering unto a social cause.
  • The Red Cross Society is also likewise. One important activity of Red Cross has been blood-donation camps रक्तदानम्
  • But, from what I know, the truest, most dedicated spirit of volunteership is in राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ, founded by Dr. Hedgewar on 27 September 1925. Main feature of the volunteership is श्रमदानम्.

 

(३) As such, philanthropy दानम् is good. But the three श्लोकाः above (१७-२०) to (१७-२२) make clear distinction between सात्त्विकम् दानम्, राजसम् दानम् and तामसम् दानम्. That is very important. 

(४) कठोपनिषत् begins with नचिकेताः becoming askance, whether the सर्ववेदस्-यज्ञः, his father वाजश्रवाः offering everything of his was appropriate. The reason for नचिकेताः becoming askance was that the cows offered in the यज्ञः were पीतोदकाः no thirst or no energy left to lip any water, जग्धतृणाः no desire for grass or no energy left to munch any grass, दुग्धदोहाः all milk milched from their udders. I wonder whether there can be any clearer picture of असत्कृतम् अवज्ञातम् दानम् which certainly qualifies to be तामसम् दानम्.   

(५) The COVID 19 pandemic is also bringing to light many stories of selfless service and philanthropy being offered by thousands of individuals. May the crede of सात्त्विकं दानम् grow ! May God bless them all with परं श्रेयः ! 

शुभमस्तु ! 

-o-O-o-