Supplement to Post Nos. 31 and 32 on studying Sanskrit and Geetaa together (Chapter 2 verses 11 to 15)

Supplement to Post Nos. 31 and 32 on studying Sanskrit and Geetaa together (Chapter 2 verses 11 to 15)

Very interesting comments have been provided by Mr. J. Joker –

(1) The other usages of the same expression for comparison.

You may need to review your translation in the light of these and other occurrences than your own kalpana:

Book 14
Chapter 48

उच्च्वास मात्रम अपि चेद यॊ ऽनतकाले समॊ भवेत
आत्मानम उपसंगम्य सॊ ऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते॥

एवं पूर्वं परसन्नात्मा लभते यद यद इच्छति
अव्यक्तात सत्त्वम उद्रिक्तम अमृतत्वाय कल्पते॥
By the way, it is a grammatically perfect usage according to Paninian grammar, which gives the same meaning as interpreted by many commentators with the dative case associated with अमृतत्व.

“विद्यया विन्दते ऽमृतम्।”
“अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्थ्वा विद्ययाऽमृतमश्नुते”
and many other Upanishats explain the related expression for the अमृत here than eternal existence in the restricted usage. That is why it is very often called as Upanishat very frequently as it reflects and summarizes the ideas in the Upanishats in a simpler language.

(2)

१०-१ धृतिः अस्य अस्ति इति धीरः ।
१०-२ धृति: “धृ” १ उ, ६ आ, १० उ (= to hold, to bear, to sustain, to have forbearance, to have fortitude) इति धातुः । तस्मात् स्त्रीलिङ्गी नाम “धृति” (= boldness, forbearance, fortitude) ।
१०-३ धीर = bold, having forbearance, fortitude
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The meaning is ok. But it cannot be derived from the word धृति. According to Paninian grammar, it can be derived from धी+र.

(3) Above comment is rather in continuation of a comment on Post # 31 where also a study of the word धीर was discussed. The comment was –

२० धीरः “धृ” १ उ, ६ आ, १० उ (= to hold, to bear, to sustain, to have forbearance, to have fortitude) इति धातुः । तस्मात् विशेषणम् “धीर” (= bold, having fortitude, having forbearance) । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

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Following Paninian rules, it cannot be derived with the root dhR. But it is derived in a different way:

dhyai cintāyām – dhīḥ ध्यै चिन्तायाम् – धीः

dhiyaṃ rāti (=dadāti ātmā, dhairyaṃ niścayātmikāṃ buddhiṃ vā gṛhṇāti) iti dhī + ra >> dhīraḥ = paṇḍitaḥ, vicakṣaṇaḥ yuktāyuktavivicane buddhiṃ dadātīti

  • धियं राति (= ददाति आत्मा, धैर्यं निश्चयात्मकां बुद्धिं वा गृह्णाति)  इति धी + र >> धीरः = पण्डितः, युक्तायुक्तविवेचने बुद्धिं ददातीति)

or

dhiyaṃ (dhyeye lakṣye) īrayanti iti vā; anityadehaṃ vihāya paramabrahmaṇi buddhiṃ prerayatīti yogī;

  • धियं (ध्येये लक्ष्ये) ईरयन्ति इति वा; अनित्यदेहं विहाय परब्रह्मणि बुद्धिं प्रेरयतीति योगी ।

will be normal derivation through Paninian system to get the meaning for the context of a philosophical discussion introduced. This verse is the reverberation of the Katha : matvā dhīro na śocati (….मत्वा धीरो न शोचति, इति कठोपनिषत्) repeated 3 times in the Upanishat. This is only introduction to the Adhyatma.

I cannot thank Mr. Joker enough for these lucid comments !! I have only added transliteration in देवनागरी. Somehow, I find it more comfortable to understand Sanskrit, if it is in देवनागरी.

The basic thought has been to do focused study word by word. Comments of Mr. Joker give so much enrichment to the study of the words (1) अमृतत्व and (2,3) धीर

There are other comments also; from Dr. H. N. Bhat in particular. I am indebted to him also.

I guess, people would also be reading the comments apart from the posts. I thought comments of Mr. Joker should rather be brought to better visibility by a separate supplementary post.

अनुगृहीतोऽस्मि खलु “जोकर”-महोदय !

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