Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA (Chapter 2 : Verse 47)

Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA (Chapter 2 : Verse 47)
संस्कृतभाषायाः तथा श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतायाः
अध्ययनस्य (अध्याय २ श्लो: ४७) चतुःपञ्चाशत्तमः (५४) सोपानः ।

हरिः ॐ !

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ||२-४७||

Exercise 1 Rewrite this by breaking conjugations and showing component-words contained in compound words.
स्वाध्यायः १ सन्धि-विच्छेदान् कृत्वा समासानां पदानि च दर्शयित्वा पुनर्लिखतु एतत् ।
कर्मणि एव अधिकार: ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्मफलहेतु: भूः मा ते सङ्गः अस्तु अकर्मणि ||२-४७||

अत्र सन्धयः –>

  1. कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते
    1. कर्मणि एव = कर्मण्येव (स्वर-संधिः)
    2. कर्मण्येव अधिकार: = कर्मण्येवाधिकारः (स्वर-संधिः)  (विसर्ग-संधिः)
    3. कर्मण्येवाधिकारः ते = कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते (विसर्ग-संधिः)
  2. कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा
    1. कर्मफलहेतु: भूः = कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः (विसर्ग-संधिः)
    2. कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः मा = कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा (विसर्ग-संधिः)
  3. सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि
    1. सङ्गः अस्तु = सङ्गोऽस्तु (विसर्ग-संधिः)
    2. सङ्गोऽस्तु अकर्मणि = सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि (स्वर-संधिः)
Exercise 2 Paraphrase the clauses

स्वाध्यायः २ वाक्यांशशः अन्वयान् वाक्यांशानां विश्लेषणानि च ददतु
अन्वयाः

  1. कर्मणि एव ते अधिकार: (भवति) ।
  2. फलेषु कदाचन मा (भवति) ।
  3. कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः मा (भव) ।
  4. अकर्मणि ते सङ्गः मा अस्तु ।

वाक्यांशानां विश्लेषणानि  Analysis of clauses –

वाक्यांश-
क्रमाङ्कः
उद्गारवाचकम् वा संबोधनम् संबन्ध-सूचकम् कर्तृपदम् कर्मपदम् अथवा पूरकपदम् क्रियापदम् अथवा धातुसाधितम् क्रियाविशेषणानि इतरे शब्दाः वाक्यांशस्य प्रकारः
ते अधिकार: (भवति) कर्मणि एव प्रधान:
(ते अधिकार:) मा (भवति) फलेषु कदाचन प्रधान:
(त्वम्) कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः मा (भव) प्रधान:
ते सङ्गः मा अस्तु अकर्मणि प्रधान:

Note :-

  1. Three of the four sentences are negative. They all use मा as the negative auxiliary.

स्वाध्यायः ३ समासानां विग्रहान् शब्दानां व्युत्पत्तीः विश्लेषणानि च ददतु ।
Exercise ३ Decipher the compound words, and detail grammatical analysis of all words

कर्मणि एव ते अधिकार: (भवति)

१ कर्मणि – “कर्मन्” (= work, job, task, assignment, execution) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

२ एव (= only) इति अव्ययम् ।

३ ते – “युष्मद्” (= pronoun of second person, you) इति सर्वनाम । तस्य चतुर्थी अथवा षष्ठी विभक्तिः (अत्र षष्ठी) एकवचनम् च ।

४ अधिकार: – “अधि + कृ” इति धातुः । तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “अधिकार” (= authority, command) | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

  • ४-१ कृ इति भ्वादि (१) अनिट् उभयपदी धातुः । कृञ् करणे (कृ = to do) ।
  • ४-२ कृ इति तनादि (८) अनिट् उभयपदी धातुः । डुकृञ् करणे (कृ = to do) ।
  • ४-३ अधि = having authority, having command

कर्मणि एव ते अधिकार: (भवति) = you have authority only at execution

फलेषु (ते अधिकार:) कदाचन मा (भवति)

५ फलेषु – “फल” (= fruit, result) इति नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः बहुवचनम् च ।

६ कदाचन (= anytime) इति अव्ययम् ।तद्धितं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

७ मा (= not) इति नकारार्थि क्रियापदस्य सहाय्यकारि अव्ययम् ।

फलेषु (ते अधिकार:) कदाचन मा (भवति) = You do not have anytime authority or command over (determining or demand on) the result.

कर्मफलहेतु: मा भूः
८ कर्मफलहेतु: – “कर्मफलहेतु” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् । अत्र पुल्लिङ्गि । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

  • ८-१ कर्मणः फलं इति कर्मफलम् (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) ।
  • ८-२ कर्मफले हेतुः कर्मफलहेतुः (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • ८-३ कर्मफलहेतुः (भूतः वा भवति) यस्य सः कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः (बहुव्रीहिः) ।
  • ८-४ हेतुः – “हेतु” इति पुल्लिङ्गि नाम । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
    • ८-४-१ हेतु = cause, reason
    • ८-४-२ हेतु = motive, purpose
    • ८-४-३ हेतु =instrument, element
  • ८-४ भूः “भू” इति भ्वादि परस्मैपदी धातुः । भू सत्तायाम् (भू = to be, to attain) । तस्मात् विशेषणम् “भूः” (= being, existing, becoming) ।
  • ८-५ कर्मफलहेतुर्भूः = one, doing a task, by having a motive or purpose (in turn an expected result) in mind

कर्मफलहेतु: मा भूः = Do not become involved in actions by a reason or purpose or by an objective or by an expected end-result. (That means, “do actions for just doing them.”)

अकर्मणि ते सङ्गः मा अस्तु
९ अकर्मणि – “अकर्मन्” इति सामासिकं नपुंसकलिङ्गि नाम । तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।

  • ९-१ न कर्म अकर्म (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः) ।
  • ९-२ अ –
    • ९-२-१ Abhyankar’s dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar mentions that this letter has eighteen varieties caused by accentuation or nasalization or lengthening. That is some study in phonetics !!! (The dictionary is available for free download at http://www.scribd.com/doc/59628245/Abhyankar-Dictionary-of-Sanskrit-Grammar)
    • ९-२-२ In Apte’s dictionary, it is mentioned that a negative prefix would have use for six different shades of meaning !
      • ९-२-२-१ The six shades of negative meanings are summarized in a श्लोक – तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्वं विरोधश्च नञर्था षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ।।
    • ९-२-३ Now I understand some significance of the mention in the 10th chapter – अक्षराणां अकारोऽस्मि । (१०-३३). Amongst letters I am the letter अ.
  • ९-३ अकर्म = Since अकार has a negative prefix would have six shades of negative meanings, this word अकर्म would also have all those six shades of meanings.
    • ९-३-१ तत्सादृश्यम् = (It is like that, but it is not that) अकर्म would hence mean what looks like कर्म but is not कर्म.
      • In a mood of being jocular, if someone would ask me, “Well, what is going on ?” I would say, “Looking busy !”. Now I realize that, that jocular response of mine was actually one shade of meaning of अकर्म.
    • ९-३-२ अभाव: = lack of; Hence अकर्म = lack of कर्म; i.e. कर्म not being in evidence
    • ९-३-३ तदन्यत्वम् = what is, is different from what is expected (or desired) to be
    • ९-३-४ तदल्पता = what is, is too little or too short of. People often do their job, holding something up their sleeves. A clerk or a peon not putting up the file or the officer not disposing off pending matters, often in expectation of gratis payment are doing work, which is too little or too short. All such work is अकर्म and in turn अधर्म. With all due respects to Shri. Anna Hazare, I sincerely feel that war against corruption should actually be a war against all such grass-root tendencies towards अकर्म and in turn अधर्म. Would not a person doing अकर्म often be a corrupt person with a corrupt mind ?
    • ९-३-५ अप्राशस्त्वम् = unbecoming, unfitting. In the four श्लोक-s 33 to 36, already studied, there is enough detailing of what and how it would be unbecoming of अर्जुन, not to fight the war.
    • ९-३-६ विरोधः = opposition; If अर्जुन would go away when all his brothers and all the पाण्डवसैन्य wanted to fight the war, his going away would become opposition to their कर्म. In turn it would be अकर्म of अर्जुन.

१० सङ्गः – “सम् + गम्” इति भ्वादि (१) अनिट् परस्मैपदी धातुः । गमु गतौ (गम् = to go) । तस्मात् पुल्लिङ्गि नाम “सङ्ग” (= going with, being with, being in the company of, accompaniment of, affliction of) । तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् च ।
११ अस्तु – “अस्” इति अदादि (२) सेट् परस्मैपदी धातुः । अस भुवि (अस् = to be) । तस्य लोट्-आज्ञार्थे प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् ।

अकर्मणि ते सङ्गः मा अस्तु  = May you not have the affliction of अकर्म.

Exercise 4 In what meter is this verse composed ?
स्वाध्यायः ४ – अस्य काव्यस्य रचना कस्मिन् वृत्ते अस्ति ?

To decipher the meter we set the verse in four quarters –

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते । वर्णाः ८
मा फलेषु कदाचन । वर्णाः ८
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर् – वर्णाः ८
मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ।। वर्णाः ८
अत्र अनुष्टुभ् छन्दः । अस्य लक्षणपदम् – श्लोके षष्ठं गुरु ज्ञेयम् सर्वत्र लघु पञ्चमम् । द्विचतुः पादयोर्-र्हस्वं सप्तमं दीर्घमन्ययोः ।।

Exercise 5 Comments, Notes, Observations, if any.

स्वाध्यायः ५ – टिप्पण्य: ।  

५-१ Having detailed six shades of negative meanings of the prefix अ, I am feeling more than happy for having had this urge to do this project of ‘Learning together Sanskrit and GeetA’. Maybe, this project is becoming almost a ‘dictionary’ of गीता. The difference is that in a dictionary the diction is detailed in alphabetical order. I am following the order, by which one comes across the words in गीता. I believe that this effort is hence unique and useful. It certainly is for me. Of course it is an exercise in self-study. I am of course indebted to so many expert comments, which have guided me immensely in this self-study.

५-२ This श्लोक brings to mind an instance of 1979. I was attending the Silver Jubilee Convention of Bombay Productivity Council, which had the theme, ‘Management Perspectives for the 80’s’. The first session was on Management of Men. When the session was open to Qs and As, I went to the dias and put forth this observation – “When thinking of Management of men in the context of Industrial productivity, it seems we have two classes of men in mind – the workers and management staff, the blue-collared and the white-collared. There is also the general perception that the blue-collared are not as motivated to the corporate goals as the white-collared are. If it is a question of motivation, we know that in Mahabharata war, अर्जुन lost his motivation to fight and as the manager on the spot भगवान्-श्रीकृष्ण took upon himself the responsibility to motivate अर्जुन back. I think we can re-study गीता as the digest of the science and philosophy of motivation. If that was an instance of one-to-one motivation, Lokamanya Tilak saw in गीता the potential also for mass-motivation. Basically, motivation is a managerial responsibility and study of गीता with such different perspective should prove helpful.”

During lunch-break, one person came to me and said, “Mr. Abhyankar, let me first tell you that I am a Union Leader. When you made mention of गीता, for a while I thought you would mention, कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते… You know that that part of गीता’s philosophy is just not palatable for the working classes. But the way you put was very charming. He said, “why wouldn’t you develop it further and make a book ?” I replied, “Now, you are providing some motivation ! To be able to write a book with that different perspective, I need to study गीता myself.”

It is that instance of 1979, which is also one motivation for this project of self-study.

५-३ Studying this श्लोक at this instance brings to mind that some aspects of the science and philosophy of motivation are very much there in this श्लोक itself, especially in the phrase मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि (= May you not have the affliction of अकर्म). When the subject is made fully aware of what all अकर्म means and is urged not to have any affliction of it, would not that be the best motivation ? In fact in ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना (१८-१८) motivation is said to be of three aspects, the first being ज्ञान, i.e. making the subject fully aware.

५-४ But making अर्जुन fully aware of what all अकर्म means needed much more detailing. This श्लोक, in a way, lays the foundation for all the detailing further.

शुभमस्तु ।

-o-O-o-

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