Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 54)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 54)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५४)

अर्जुन उवाच ।
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २- ५४॥

पदच्छेदैः –

अर्जुनः उवाच ।
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किम् आसीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २- ५४॥

Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –

(1) The most common अन्वय that comes to mind is – अर्जुनः उवाच, “केशव, स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा ? स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत ? (स्थितधीः) किम् आसीत (स्थितधीः) किं व्रजेत ?

  • Three words here स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः sound to be synonymous. It is my contention, however, that in गीता no word is superfluous. So, if I have to think that each of these words is significant and none of these words is just a synonym of another, then I need to deliberate accordingly.
  • If the three words are not just synonyms, then the अन्वय can as well be अर्जुनः उवाच, “केशव, स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा ? समाधिस्थस्य (का भाषा ?) स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत ? (स्थितधीः) किम् आसीत (स्थितधीः) किम् व्रजेत ?
  • So by this optional अन्वय, there are five questions asked by Arjuna, not four.

(2) Answers of श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in further verses need to be studied in this light, whether the three words स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः are taken as synonymous or as each having a significant meaning of its own.

(3) Since we shall come to the further verses only later, In the context of this verse on hand, we can devote some deliberations of our own also.

  • All three words are compound words and all have one component word derived धातु from स्था (ष्ठा गतिनिवृत्तौ) which is detailed in Apte’s dictionary as below –
    • स्था 1 P. (Ātm. also in certain senses; तिष्ठति- ते, तस्थौ, तस्थे, अस्थात्-अस्थित, स्थास्यति-ते, स्थातुं, स्थित; pass. स्थीयते; the स् of this root is changed to ष् after a preposition ending in इ or उ) 1 To stand; अयं स ते तिष्ठति संगमोत्सुकः Ś.3.13; चलत्येकेन पादेन तिष्ठत्येकेन बुद्धिमान् Subhāṣ -2 To stay, abide, dwell, live; ग्रामे or गृहे तिष्ठति -3 To remain, be left; यावदेकानुदिष्टस्य गन्धो लेपश्च तिष्ठति. Ms.4.111; एको गङ्गदत्तस्तिष्ठति Pt.4. -2 To delay, wait; किमिति स्थीयते Ś.2. -5 To stop, cease, desist, stand still; तिष्ठत्येष क्षणमधिपतिर्ज्योतिषां व्योममध्ये V.2.1. -6 To be kept aside; तिष्ठतु तावत् पत्रलेखागमनवृत्तान्तः K. ‘never mind the account of’ &c. -7 To be, exist, be in any state or position; often with participles; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; व्याप्य स्थितं रोदसी V.1.1; या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वं Ś.1.1; कालं नयमाना तिष्ठति Pt.1; Ms.7.8. -8 To abide by, conform to, obey (with loc.); शासने तिष्ठ भर्तुः V.5. 17. R.11.65. -9 To be restrained; यदि ते तु न तिष्ठेयुरुपायैः प्रथमैस्त्रिभिः Ms.7.18. -1 To be at hand, be obtainable; न विप्रं स्वेषु तिष्ठत्सु मृतं शूद्रेण नाययेत् Ms.5.14. -11 To live, breathe; आः क एष मयि स्थिते चन्द्रगुप्तमभिभवितुमिच्छति Mu.1. -12 To stand by or near, stand at one’s side, help; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे शत्रुसंकटे (राष्ट्रविप्लवे) । राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ H.1.71 (v. l.). -13 To rest or depend on; जहातु नैनं कथमर्थसिद्धिः संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -14 To do, perform, occupy oneself with; न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नोपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् Ms.2.13. -15 (Ātm.) To resort or go to (as an umpire), be guided by the advice of; संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -16 (Ātm.) To offer oneself to (for sexual embrace), stand as a prostitute (with dat.); गोपी स्मरात् कृष्णाय तिष्ठते Sk. on P.I.4.34.
  • (3-1) The word स्थितप्रज्ञ = स्थिता प्रज्ञा यस्य सः स्थितप्रज्ञः (बहुव्रीहिः) meaning one, whose प्रज्ञा has attained steadfastness.
    • But what is प्रज्ञा ? The धातु is ज्ञा – क्र्यादि (९) अनिट् प० । ज्ञा अवबोधने |, meaning ‘to realize’, ‘to understand’, primarily by sense-organs. Rather, प्रज्ञा is what gist settles down from what all is realized by sense-organs. In Apte’s dictionary
      • प्रज्ञा 1 Intelligence, understanding, intellect, wisdom; आकारसदृशप्रज्ञः प्रज्ञया सदृशागमः R.1.15; नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता Bg.2.57; शस्त्रं निहन्ति पुरुषस्य शरीरमेकं प्रज्ञा कुलं च विभवं यशश्च हन्ति ॥ Subhāṣ. -2 Discernment, discrimination, judgment; इयं निष्ठा बहुविधा प्रज्ञया त्वध्यवस्यति Mb.14.3.24. -3 Device or design. -4 A wise or learned woman. -5 Longing for (वासना); impression (संस्कार); तं विद्याकर्मणि समन्वारभेते पूर्वप्रज्ञा च Bṛi. Up.4.4.2. -6 N. of the goddess Sarasvatī. -7 A particular Śakti or energy. -8 A true or transcendental wisdom; Buddha.
    • Hence स्थितप्रज्ञ is one, who is not disturbed by whatever is realized by sense-organs. So स्थितप्रज्ञ = प्रज्ञासु (सु)स्थितः
    • Note, what are realized by sense-organs are external instincts.
  • (3-2) समाधिस्थः = समाधौ तिष्ठति (स्थ = तिष्ठति) इति समाधिस्थः (उपपद-तत्पुरुषः) meaning, one, who stays in समाधि. But what is समाधि ?
    • समाधिः can be deciphered either
      • from सम् + आ + धि meaning state of comprehensive and also focused intellect, state of deep meditation
      • समा धीः (यस्यां स्थितौ) सा समाधिः meaning equanimity of intellect, equanimity towards all dualities – sorrows or happiness, gains or losses, successes or failures as mentioned earlier in सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ (2-38)
    • By two options as above समाधिस्थः would mean either
      • one, who is in deep meditation or
      • one, who has become equanimous towards all dualities.
    • In Apte’s dictionary – समाधिः 1 Collecting, composing, concentrating (as mind). -2 Profound or abstract meditation, concentration of mind on one object, perfect absorption of thought into the one object of meditation, i. e. the Supreme Spirit, (the 8th and last stage of Yoga); व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते Bg.2.44; आत्मेश्वराणां न हि जातु विघ्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति Ku.3.4,5; Mk.1.1; Bh.3.54. R.8.79; Śi.4.55. -3 Intentness, concentration (in general), fixing of thoughts; यथा भानुगतं तेजो मणिः शुद्धः समाधिना । आदत्ते राजशार्दूल तथा योगः प्रवर्तते ॥ Mb.12.298.12; तस्यां लग्नसमाधि (मानसम्) Gīt.3; अहःसु तस्या हृदि ये समाधयः Rām. ch.2.41. -4 Penance, religious obligation, devotion (to penance); अस्त्येतदन्यसमाधिभीरुत्वं देवानाम् Ś1; तपः- समाधि Ku.3.24; अथोपयन्तारमलं समाधीना 5.24;5.6;1.59; सर्वथा दृढसमाधिर्भव Nāg.5. -5 Bringing together, concentration
    • Also समं धियते अनया (अवस्थया) इति समाधिः | = समाधि is that state of mind and intellect, when everything and every state is regarded equal
      • समम् 1 A level plain, flat country; संनिपत्य शनकैरिव निम्नादन्धकारमुदवाप समानि Ki.9. 11. -2 (In rhet.) N. of a figure of speech. -3 (In geometry) A mean proportional segment. -4 Equanimity. -5 Similarity. -6 Settlement; compensation; कर्मणापि समं कुर्याद्धनिकायाधमर्णिकः Ms.8.177. -7 Good circumstances; Mk.
      • समम् ind. 1 With, together with, in company with, accompanied by; (with instr.); आहां निवत्स्यति समं हरिणाङ्गनाभिः Ś.1.26; R.2.25;8.63; 16.72. -2 Equally; समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु Bg.13.27.28; यथा सर्वाणि भूतानि धरा धारयते समम् Ms.9.311. -3 Like, similarly, in the same manner; यत्र स्वामी निर्विशेषं समं मृत्येषु वर्तते Pt.1.78. -4 Entirely. -5 Simultaneously, all at once, at the same time, together; नवं पयो यत्र धनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् R.13.26;4.4;1.59;14.1. -6 Honestly, fairly.
    • अथवा समा धीः यया सा समाधिः = समाधि is balanced, equanimous (समा) state of mind and intellect,
      • सम a. 1 Same, identical. -2 Equal, as in समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः R.8.21; Pt.2.7; सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ Bg.2.38; समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः । शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः संगविवर्जितः ॥ 12.18. -3 Like, similar, resembling; with instr. or gen. or in comp. गुणयुक्तो दरिद्रो$पि नेश्वरैरगुणैः समः Subhāṣ.; Ku.3.13. -4 Even, level, plain; समवेशवर्तिनस्ते न दुरासदो भविष्यति Ś.1. -5 Even (as number). -6 Impartial, fair; शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः Bg.5.18. -7 Just, honest, upright. -8 Good, virtuous. -9 Ordinary, common. -1 Mean, middling. -11 Straight. -12 Suitable, convenient. -13 Indifferent, unmoved, unaffected by passion. -14 All, every one. -15 All, whole, entire, complete. -16 Being a pair. -17 Regular, normal. -18 Middling. -19 Easy, convenient.
  • (3-3) The third word स्थितधीः = स्थिता धीः यस्य सः इति स्थितधीः (बहुव्रीहिः) should mean one, whose intellect is steadfast or rather tranquil. Tranquility of the intellect presumes not only equanimity or staying unaffected by all external instincts but tranquility with respect to all internal thought-processes, with respect to all internal instincts also. What comes to mind is the difference between water of a river and water in a lake. River water can never be tranquil. Lake water can be. Bed of the river is never level. It causes the water to keep flowing downwards. Bed of a lake may also be not level, but its water is bound from all sides and has no scope to flow to anywhere. स्थिता धीः means intellect so bounded that it cannot waver either by external or internal instincts. Patanjali’s योगसूत्राणि starts with the aphorism योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः | By this, the word स्थितधीः can connote a योगी.
    • Something interesting about the grammar in this word स्थितधीः is that it is adjectival and here it is masculine with ending vowel being ई. Usually among model vowel-ending words we do not have a masculine ई-ending word. But here we have one such word स्थितधीः

(4) In both समाधिस्थस्य and स्थितधीः there is the noun धीः

  • धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
    • ध्यै चिन्तायाम् 1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.

(5) By above analysis also, the three words स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ and स्थितधीः are not synonymous. Rather they seem to connote a progression of how a योगी would progress – first  स्थितप्रज्ञ, then समाधिस्थ, further on स्थितधीः

(6) In the question का भाषा, the meaning of the word भाषा needs to be taken as ‘definition’ and not as ‘language’. The धातु is भाष् भ्वादि (१) सेट् आ० । भाष व्यक्तायां वाचि । Hence it means ‘to express’, ‘to narrate’ and hence ‘to elaborate’, ‘to comment’, ‘to define’

  • Meaning of धातु भाष् is detailed by पाणिनि as व्यक्तायां वाचि. Note, it is not उक्तायां वाचि. Here वाक् (= thought) should be understood in all four stages of its emergence – परा, पश्यन्ती, मध्यमा and वैखरी. Also व्यक्ति/अभिव्यक्ति of वाक् need not be only by उक्ति speech. It can be by written form, by any articulation or by any artistic expression also.
    • In Apte’s dictionary – भाष् 1 Ā. (भाषते, भाषित) 1 To say, speak, utter; त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् Ku.5.81; oft. with two acc.; भीतां प्रियामेत्य वचो बभाषे R.7.66; आखण्डलः काममिदं बभाषे Ku.3.11; Bk.9.122. -2 To speak to, address; किंचिद्विहस्यार्थपतिं बभाषे R.2.46;3.51. -3 To tell, announce, declare; क्षितिपालमुञ्चैः प्रीत्या तमेवार्थमभाषतेव R.2. 51. -4 To speak or talk about. -5 To name, call. -6 To describe. -With अनु 1 to speak, say. -2 to communicate, announce; यथा यथा नरो$धर्मं स्वयं कृत्वानुभाषते Ms.11.228.
  • Meaning of भाषा [भाष्-अ] 1 Speech, talk; as in चारुभाषः. -2 Language, tongue; सत्या न भाषा भवति यद्यपि स्यात् प्रतिष्ठिता Ms.8.164. -3 A common or vernacular dialect; (a) the spoken Sanskṛit language (opp. छन्दस् or वेद); विभाषा भाषायाम् P.VI.1.181; (b) any Prākṛita dialect (opp. संस्कृत); भाषाश्च विविधा नृणाम् Ms.9.332; see प्राकृत. -4 Definition, description; स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा Bg.2.54. -5 An epithet of Sarasvatī, the goddess of speech. -6 (In law) The first of the four stages of a law-suit; the plaint, charge or accusation; यदावेदयते राज्ञे तद्भाषेत्यभिधीयते Y. -7 (In music) N. of a Rāgiṇī.

(7) Here, स्थितधीः is the subject word of the verb प्रभाषेत. It is logical to carry it forward as the subject word for the verbs आसीत and व्रजेत also. All are verb-forms in potential mood, विध्यर्थे (विधिलिङ्-लकारे) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम्. By these verbs स्थितधीः is not someone meditating in a forlorn place. स्थितधीः is very much speaking, narrating, elaborating, staying here and there, going about, active. The interrogative pronoun किम् seems to mean both ‘how’ and ‘what’ –

  • स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत what and how he should be talking about
  • स्थितधीः किम् आसीत by what (concepts) and how he should be residing in, by what concepts, he should be steadfast
  • स्थितधीः किं व्रजेत how he should be moving about, conducting himself

(8) Human activity has been analyzed to be happening at three levels – mouth, mind and motion. These three levels are connoted by the verbs प्रभाषेत, आसीत, व्रजेत. These three verbs here make sort of a preview of a later statement शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत् कर्म प्रारभते नरः (18-15)

  • Incidentally all the three verbs here are आत्मनेपदी, their import reflecting unto oneself.
    • भाष् (भ्वा० सेट् आ० । भाष व्यक्तायां वाचि १.६९६)
    • आस् । अ० सेट् आ० । आस उपवेशने २.११
    • व्रज् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । (व्रज-) [गतौ] १.२४७ ॥
      व्रज् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । व्रज गतौ १.२८६ ॥
      व्रज् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । व्रज मार्गसंस्कारगत्योः १०.१०९
  • आत्मनेपदी, ‘the import reflecting unto oneself’ means that स्थितधीः indulges in all these, not to impress or preach anybody else, but only to elevate himself. But may be, he leads by example. By his own conduct, he sets the norm for conduct.

(9) The three धातु-s together connote the personality of a person, how and what he/she speaks, how his/her mind is cultivated and how he/she conducts oneself.

(10) Whereas the three धातु-s together connote how human activity is initiated, Individually also each धातु makes an interesting study.

  • Meaning of धातु आस् is detailed by पाणिनि as आस उपवेशने. The word उपवेशन is itself from धातु उपविश् (= to sit) By extended meaning, आस् would mean ‘to settle down at’, ‘to position oneself’, ‘to attain a status, a platform or a pedestal’. In Apte’s dictionary –
    • आस् I. 2 Ā. (आस्ते, आसांचक्रे, आसिष्ट; आसितुम्, आसित) 1 To sit, lie, rest; Bg.2.45; एतदासनमास्यताम् V.5; आस्यतामिति चोक्तः सन्नासीताभिमुखं गुरोः Ms.2.193. -2 To live, dwell; तावद्वर्षाण्यासते देवलोके Mb.; यत्रास्मै रोचते तत्रायमास्ताम् K.196; कुरूनास्ते Sk.; यत्रामृतास आसते Rv.9.15.2; Bk.4.6,8.79. -3 To sit quietly, take no hostile measures, remain idle; आसीनं त्वामुत्थापयति द्वयम् Śi.2.57. -4 To be, exist. -5 To be contained in; जगन्ति यस्यां सविकाशमासत Śi.1.23. -6 To abide, remain, continue or be in any state, be doing anything, last; oft. used with present participles to denote a continuous or uninterrupted action; विदारयन्प्रगर्जंश्चास्ते Pt.1 kept on, continued, tearing up and bellowing; used in this sense also with an adj., subst., indeclinable, past part., an adverb (तूष्णीम् &c.), or with the instr. of a noun; सुखेनास्ते &c. -7 To lead to, result in (with dat.); आस्तां मानसतुष्टये सुकृतिनां नीतिर्नवोढेव वः H.1.185 -8 To cease, have an end. -9 To solemnize, celebrate. -1 To let go, lay or put aside; आस्तां तावत् let it aside, let it go, to say nothing of, not to mention; K.18. -11 To be indifferent; ननु आस्ते इत्युपवेशने भवति । नावश्यमुपवेशने एव, औदासीन्ये$पि दृश्यते । ŚB. on MS.3.6.24. -Caus. To cause to sit, seat, fix; आसयत्सलिले पृथ्वीम् Sk. Desid. आसिसिषते To wish to sit &c. –II.4. P. [आस्यति, आसितुम्] 1 To enclose; border. -2 To admit (as water) into.
  • धातु व्रज् is परस्मैपदी in प्रथमगण and उभयपदी in दशमगण. It has आत्मनेपदी रूपाणि in दशमगण. But व्रजेत does not fit in as a रूपम् in दशमगण. It does not fit in as a रूपम् in प्रथमगण either, because in प्रथमगण the धातु व्रज् is परस्मैपदी. So व्रजेत is certainly आर्षरूपम् (ऋषीणामिदमिति आर्षम् what ऋषी’s would employ is आर्ष). If one would think that one should be a ऋषी to be eligible to employ आर्षरूपम्, here it is used by Arjuna. It seems व्यासमुनि composed this question as asked by Arjuna, using आर्षरूपम्, as if to suggest that by whatever was narrated by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in 43 श्लोक-s from 11 to 53 has so elevated Arjuna’s thinking that he has become eligible to use आर्षरूपम्.
    • In धातुपाठ meaning of धातु व्रज् is detailed by पाणिनि as मार्गसंस्कारगत्योः. Note, व्रजनम् is not just गति or मार्गक्रमणम्. It is मार्गसंस्कार. That is what cows in व्रजभूमि do. In eating the grass, when walking along, they do मार्गसंस्कार. Moving about by स्थितधी also would effect मार्गसंस्कार. This mention seems to be the precursor to the mention यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठः तत्तदेवेतरो जनः | स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते ||३-२१||
    • In Apte’s dictionary – व्रज् I. 1 P. (व्रजत) 1 To go, walk, proceed; नाविनीतै- र्व्रजेद् धुर्यैः Ms.4.67. -2 To go to, approach, visit; मामेकं शरणं व्रज Bg.18.66. -3 To depart, retire, withdraw. -4 To pass away (as time); इयं व्रजति यमिनी त्यज नरेन्द्र निद्रारसम् Vikr.11.74. -5 To attain to, go to the state of. -6 To obtain, gain. -II. 1 U. (व्राजयति-ते) 1 To go. -2 To prepare, decorate. (This root is used much in the same way as गम् or या q. v.)
  • किं प्रभाषेत, किम् आसीत, किं व्रजेत seems to be precursor to the mention शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः (६-११)

(11) In this verse the questions asked by Arjuna are prompted by what has been said by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् in the verses previous to this one. So, what has been said in the previous verses becomes the context for the questions in this verse. This means that this verse should be interpreted in continuation than in isolation.

  • The word समाधिस्थ in this verse has in it the components समाधि and स्थ, which have continuations from the words समाधौ स्थास्यति in the previous verse by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् – “यदा ते श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना बुद्धिः निश्चला समाधौ अचला स्थास्यति तदा योगम् अवाप्स्यसि”
  • The words धीः  and प्रज्ञा in this verse have the continuation with and synonymous to the word बुद्धिः in the previous verse by श्रीकृष्णभगवान्.

(12) In all the words together, धातु-s in this verse are स्था, प्र+ज्ञा, भाष्, ध्यै, प्र+भाष्, आस्, व्रज्

  • I thought it good to note भाष् and प्र+भाष् separately, because उपसर्ग-s do bring difference to the meaning of the धातु
    • In the word भाषा, the धातु भाष् has the sense, “to define”, i.e. how others should speak about a स्थितप्रज्ञ.
    • In the word प्रभाषेत, the धातु प्रभाष् has the sense, “to discourse, to express”, i.e. with what poise a स्थितधीः should carry himself. Because प्रभाष् is an action of a स्थितधीः, possibly there is a sense of “Body-language” or maybe only of disposition, than of a verbal expression.
  • The verbs आसीत and व्रजेत of course connote not just actions, but  maybe again dispositions of स्थितप्रज्ञ, समाधिस्थ, and स्थितधीः
  • There are so many shades of meaning for every धातु and in turn as many shades of meanings of the words.

(13) Questions asked by Arjuna should impress anyone by the intelligence inherent in them. They also bring forth how intent a listener he has been to what all was said by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् through as many as 43 verses. They also bring forth how intent a student should be to what is being taught by the teachers. The questions also bring forth how Arjuna grasped the essence. Anyway, being focused on the essence has been the hallmark of Arjuna’s character all through श्रीमन्महाभारतम्. The questions also bring forth that Arjuna is awakening to his true character, maybe, slowly, but surely.

(14) By asking the questions स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत, किमासीत, किं व्रजेत Arjuna seems to enquire how and what for somebody who will have become स्थितधीः, but for anyone who has to become स्थितधीः, himself, any one of us also ! गीता merits to be studied not just to understand what श्रीकृष्णभगवान् told to Arjuna, but what is there for us, for each one of us. To become स्थितधीः should be the urge in all of us. Arjuna’s questions are on behalf of all of us.

शुभमस्तु !!!

-o-O-o-

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Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 53)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 53)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५३)

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला |

समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ||२-५३||

पदच्छेदैः –

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला |

समाधौ अचला बुद्धिः तदा योगं अवाप्स्यसि ||२-५३||

अन्वयः –

यदा ते श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना बुद्धिः निश्चला समाधौ अचला स्थास्यति तदा योगं अवाप्स्यसि |

विशिष्टानां शब्दानां विश्लेषणम् (Detailing specific words) –

(१) श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना – सामासिकं स्त्रीलिङ्गि विशेषणम् |

  • श्रुत्या विप्रतिपन्ना (अथवा श्रुतिभिः विप्रतिपन्ना) इति श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना (तृतीया-तत्पुरुषः) |
  • श्रुत्या / श्रुतिभिः – श्रुति इति स्त्रीलिङ्गी नाम | तस्य तृतीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं / बहुवचनं च |
    • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – श्रुतिः f. [श्रु-क्तिन्] 1 Hearing; चन्द्रस्य ग्रहणमिति श्रुतेः Mu.1.7; R.1.27. -2 The ear; श्रुतिसुखभ्रमरस्वनगीतयः R.9.35; Śi.1.1; Ve.3.23. -3 Report, rumour, news, oral intelligence. -4 A sound in general; सा तु वेदश्रुतिं श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा वै तमसो निधिम् Rām.7.2.17; स वेत्ति गन्धांश्च रसान् श्रुतीश्च Mb.12.187.19. -5 The Veda (known by revelation, opp. स्मृति; see under वेद); श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्रं तु वै स्मृतिः Ms.2.1,14. -6 A Vedic or sacred text; इति श्रुतेः or इति श्रुतिः ‘so says a sacred text’. -7 Vedic or sacred knowledge, holy learning; यत्रैषा सात्वती श्रुतिः Bhāg.1.4.7;11.3.46. -8 (In music) A division of the octavo, a quarter tone or interval; रणद्भिराघट्टनया नभस्वतः पृथग्विभिन्नश्रुतिमण्डलैः स्वरैः Śi.1.1;11.1; (see Malli. ad loc.). -9 The constellation Śravaṇa. -1 The diagonal of a tetragon, the hypotenuse of a triangle; cf. कर्ण. -11 Direct or expressed signification (opp. लक्षणा); श्रुतिलक्षणाविशये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा ŚB. on MS.6.2.2. -12 Speech (वाक्); विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः Ki.14.3. -13 Name, fame (कीर्ति); हैरण्यौ भवतो बाहू श्रुतिर्भवति पार्थिवी Mb.3.35.9. -14 A word, saw, saying; Rām.2.72.25. -15 An explanation of ब्रह्म from the उपनिषद्s; विविधाश्चौपनिषदीरात्मसंसिद्धये श्रुतीः Ms.6.29 (com. श्रुतीरुपनिषत्पठितब्रह्मप्रतिपादकवाक्यानि). -16 Advantage, gain (फलश्रुति); उपोष्य संशितो भूत्वा हित्वा वेदकृताः श्रुतीः Mb.12. 265.7. -17 Name, title; बिभ्रत्यनन्यविषयां लोकपाल इति श्रुतिम् Kāv.2.331. -18 Learning. -19 Scholarship
    • अत्र श्रु इति धातुः |
      • धातुपाठसूच्याम् – श्रु । भ्वा०(१) अनिट् प० । श्रु श्रवणे |
      • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – श्रु I. 1 P. (श्रवति) To go, move; cf. शृ. -II. 5 P. (शृणोति, शुश्राव, अश्रौषीत्, श्रोष्यति, श्रोतुम्, श्रुत) 1 To hear, listen to, give ear to; शृणु मे सावशेषं वचः V.2; रुतानि चाश्रोषत षट्पदानाम् Bk.2.1; संदेशं मे तदनु जलद श्रोष्यसि श्रोत्रपेयम् Me.13.12. -2 To learn, study; द्वादशवर्षभिर्व्याकरणं श्रूयते Pt.1. -3 To be attentive, to obey. (इति श्रूयते ‘it is so heard’, i. e. is enjoined in the scriptures, such is the sacred precept.) -Caus. (श्रावयति-ते) To cause to hear, communicate, tell, relate, inform; श्रावितो$मात्यसंदेशं स्तन- कलशः Mu.4. -Desid. (शुश्रूषते) 1 To wish to hear. -2 To be attentive or obedient, obey; वाक्यं नैव करोति बान्धवजनो पत्नी न शुश्रूषते Pt.4.78 (where the word may have the next sense also). -3 To serve, wait or attend upon; शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् Ś.4.17; Ku.1.59; Ms.2.244
      • पञ्चमगणीयः शृ-धातुः धातुपाठसूच्याम् न विवृतः |
  • विप्रतिपन्ना – वि + प्रति + पद् इति धातुः | तस्य क्त-प्रत्ययेन कर्मणि-भूतकालवाचकं विशेषणम् “पन्न” | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि |
    • धातुपाठसूच्याम् – पद (पद्)। चु० (१०) सेट् आ० । पद गतौ ॥
      पद्  । दि० (४) अनिट् आ० । पद गतौ ॥
    • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – पद् I. 10 Ā. (पदयते) To go or move. -II. 4. Ā. (पद्यते, पन्न; caus. पादयति-ते; desid, पित्सते) 1 To go, move. -2 To go to, approach (with acc.) -3 To attain, obtain, gain; ज्योतिषामाधिपत्यं च प्रभावं चाप्यपद्यत Mb. -4 To observe, practise; स्वधर्मं पद्यमानास्ते Mb. -5 Ved. To fall down with fatigue. -6 Ved. To perish. -7 To fall out. -III. 1 P. (पदति) To stand fast or fixed.
    • अत्र द्वौ उपसर्गौ वि-इति च प्रति-इति च | There are two prefixes here – वि and प्रति. Their meanings also merit study.
      • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – वि ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses:– (a) separation, disjunction (apart, asunder, away, off &c.), as वियुज्, विहृ, विचल् &c.; (b) the reverse of an action; as क्री ‘to buy’; विक्री, ‘to sell’; स्मृ ‘to remember’; विस्मृ ‘to forget’; (c) division; as विभज्, विभाग; (d) distinction; as विशिष्, विशेष, विविच्, विवेक; (e) discrimination; व्यवच्छेद (f) order, arrange- ment; as विधा, विरच्; (g) opposition; as विरुध्, विरोध; (h) privation; as विनी, विनयन; (i) deliberation, as विचर्, विचार; (j) intensity; विध्वंस. -2 As a prefix to nouns or adjectives not immediately connected with roots, वि expresses (a) negation or privation, in which case it is used much in the same way as अ or निर्, i. e. it forms Bah. comp.; विधवा, व्यसुः &c.; (b) inten- sity, greatness; as विकराल; (c) variety, as विचित्र; (d) difference; as विलक्षण; (e) manifoldness, as विविध; (f) contrariety, opposition, as विलोम; (g) change, as विकार; (h) impropriety, as विजन्मन्.
      • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – प्रति ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it means (a) towards, in the direction of; (b) back, in return, again; तष्ठेदानीं न मे जीवन् प्रतियास्यसि दुर्मते Rām.7.18.13; (c) in opposition to, against, counter; (d) upon, down upon; (see the several roots with this preposition). -2 As a prefix to nouns not directly derived from verbs it means (a) likeness, resemblance, equality; (b) opposite, of the opposite side; प्रतिबल Ve.3.5. ‘the opposing force’; so प्रतिद्विपाः Mu.2.13; (c) rivalry; as in प्रतिचन्द्रः ‘a rival moon’; प्रतिपुरुषः &c. -3 As a separable preposition (with acc.) it means (a) towards, in the direction of, to; तौ दम्पती स्वां प्रति राजधानीं प्रस्थापयामास वशी वसिष्ठः R.2.7;1. 75; प्रत्यनिलं विचेरु Ku.3.31; वृक्षं प्रति विद्योतते विद्युत् Sk.; (b) against, counter, in opposition to, opposite; तदा यायाद् रिपुं प्रति Ms.7.171; प्रदुदुवुस्तं प्रति राक्षसेन्द्रम् Rām.; ययावजः प्रत्यरिसैन्यमेव R.7.55; (c) in comparison with, on a par with, in proportion to, a match for; त्वं सहस्राणि प्रति Ṛv.2.1.8; (d) near, in the vicinity of, by, at, in, on; समासेदुस्ततो गङ्गां शृङ्गवेरपुरं प्रति Rām.; गङ्गां प्रति; (e) at the time, about, during; आदित्यस्योदयं प्रति Mb; फाल्गुनं वाथ चैत्रं वा मासौ प्रति Ms.7.182; (f) on the side of, in favour of, to the lot of; यदत्र मां प्रति स्यात् Sk.; हरं प्रति हलाहलं (अभवत्) Vop.; (g) in each, in or at every, severally (used in a distributive sense); वर्षं प्रति, प्रतिवर्षम्; यज्ञं प्रति Y.1.11; वृक्षं वृक्षं प्रति सिञ्चति Sk.; (h) with regard or reference to, in relation to, regarding, concerning, about, as to; न हि मे संशीतिरस्या दिव्यतां प्रति K.132; चन्द्रोपरागं प्रति तु केनापि विप्रलब्धासि Mu.1; धर्मं प्रति Ś.5.18; मन्दौत्सुक्यो$स्मि नगरगमनं प्रति Ś.1; Ku.6.27; 7.83; त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् 5.81; Y.1.218; R.6. 12;1.29;12.51; (i) according to, in conformity with; मां प्रति in my opinion; (j) before, in the presence of; (k) for, on account of. -4 As a separable preposi- tion (with abl.) it means either (a) a representative of, in place of, instead of; प्रद्युम्नः कृष्णात् प्रति Sk.; संग्रामे यो नारायणतः प्रति Bk.8.89; or (b) in exchange or return for; तिलेभ्यः प्रति यच्छति माषान् Sk.; भक्तेः प्रत्यमृतं शंभोः Vop. -5 As the first member of Avyayībhāva compound it usually means (a) in or at every; as प्रतिसंवत्सरम् ‘every year’, प्रतिक्षणम्, प्रत्यहम् &c.; (b) towards, in the direction of; प्रत्यग्नि शलभा डयन्ते. -6 प्रति is sometimes used as the last member of Avyayī. comp. in the sense of ‘a little’; सूपप्रति, शाकप्रति. [Note:– In the com- pounds given below all words the second members of which are words not immediately connected with verbs, are included; other words will be found in their proper places.]
  • श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना =
    • शाङ्करभाष्ये – अनेकसाध्यसाधनप्रकाशनश्रुतिभिः श्रवणैः विप्रतिपन्ना नानाप्रतिपन्ना, श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना विक्षिप्ता सती
    • श्रीरामानुजाचार्यभाष्ये – श्रुतिः श्रवणम्, अस्मत्तः श्रवणेन विशेषतः प्रतिपन्ना सकलेतरविसजातीयनित्यनिरतिशयसूक्ष्मतत्त्वविषया
    • मधुसूदनसरस्वतीस्वामिनाम् (Translated by Swami Gambhirananda, Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta, 1998) – bewildered, distracted before, on account of having various kinds of doubts and errors from (hearing) the Sruti’s, from hearing about diverse kinds of results, without examining their purport
    • श्रीसंतज्ञानेश्वराणां भावार्थदीपिकायाम् (मराठीभाषायाम् AD 1290) – इंद्रियाचिया संगती । जो प्रसरु होतसे मती । ते स्थिर होईल माघौती । आत्मरूपी ।।२-८३।। समाधिसुखी केवळ । जैं बुद्धि होईल निश्चळ । तैं पावसी तूं सकळ । योगस्थिति ।।२-८४।।
    • लोकमान्य टिळक, गीतारहस्य – (नाना प्रकारच्या) वेदवाक्यांनी गांगरून गेलेली [पूर्वी २.४४ यांत सांगितल्याप्रमाणें वेदवाक्यांतील फलश्रुतीला भुलून जावून, अमक्यासाठी अमुक कर्म कर, अशा प्रकारच्या खटाटोपांत पडल्याने, बुद्धी स्थिर न होतां ती अधिक गांगरून जाते … ]
    • It is challenging to write down meaning of श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना. I shall detail my thoughts under “Notes”

(२) निश्चला – निः + चल् इति धातुतः विशेषणम् | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि |

  • निर्गतं चलनम् यस्याः सा निश्चला (नञ्-बहुव्रीहिः)
  • निर्-इति उपसर्गः |
    • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – निर् ind. A substitute for निस् before vowels and soft consonants conveying the senses of ‘out of’, ‘away from’. ‘without’, ‘free from’, and be frequently expressed by ‘less’, ‘un’, used with the noun; see the compounds given below; see निस् and cf. अ also.
    • निस् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs it implies separa- tion (away from, outside of), certainty, completeness or fulness, enjoyment, crossing over, transgressing &c.; (for examples see under (निर्). -2 As a prefix to nouns, not directly derived from verbs, it forms nouns or adjectives, and has the sense of (a) ‘out of’, ‘away from’; as in निर्वन, निष्कौशाम्बि; or (b) more usu- ally, ‘not’, ‘without’, ‘devoid of’ (having a privative force); निःशेष ‘without a remainder’; निष्फल, निर्जल, &c. N. B. In compound the स् of निस् is changed to र् before vowels and soft consonants (see निर्), to a visarga before sibilants, to श् before च् and छ्, and to ष् before क् and प्; cf. दुस्
  • चलन a. [चल् भावे ल्युट्] Moving, tremulous, trembling, shaking. -नः 1 A foot. -2 A deer. -नम् Trembling, shaking or shaking motion; चलनात्मकं कर्म T. S.; हस्त˚, जानु˚ &c.; तरलदृगञ्चलचलनमनोहरवदनजनितरतिरागम् Gīt. 11. -2 Turning or leaving off. -3 Roaming, wandering. -नी 1 A short petticoat worn by common women. -2 The rope for tying an elephant.
  • चल a. [चल्-अच्] 1 (a) Moving trembling, shaking, tremulous, rolling (as eyes &c.); चलापाङ्गां दृष्टिं स्पृशसि Ś.1.24; चलकाकपक्षकैरमात्यपुत्रैः R.3.28 waving; Bh.1.16. (b) Movable (opp. स्थिर), moving; चले लक्ष्ये Ś.2.5; परिचयं चललक्ष्यनिपातने R.9.49. -2 Unsteady, fickle, in- constant, loose, unfixed; दयितास्वनवस्थितं नृणां न खलु प्रेम चलं सुहृज्जने Ku.4.28; प्रायश्चलं गौरवमाश्रितेषु 3.1. -3 Frail, transitory, perishable; चला लक्ष्मीश्चलाः प्राणाश्चलं जीवितयौवनम् Bh.3.128. -4 Confused. -लः 1 Trembling, shaking, agitation. -2 Wind. -3 Quicksilver. -4 The supreme being. -ला 1 Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth. -2 Lightning. -3 A kind of perfume

३) समाधौ – समाधि-इति स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – समाधिः 1 Collecting, composing, concentrating (as mind). -2 Profound or abstract meditation, concentra- tion of mind on one object, perfect absorption of thou- ght into the one object of meditation, i. e. the Supreme Spirit, (the 8th and last stage of Yoga); व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते Bg.2.44; आत्मेश्वराणां न हि जातु विघ्नाः समाधिभेदप्रभवो भवन्ति Ku.3.4,5; Mk.1.1; Bh.3.54. R.8.79; Śi.4.55. -3 Intentness, concentration (in general), fixing of thoughts; यथा भानुगतं तेजो मणिः शुद्धः समाधिना । आदत्ते राजशार्दूल तथा योगः प्रवर्तते ॥ Mb.12.298.12; तस्यां लग्नसमाधि (मानसम्) Gīt.3; अहःसु तस्या हृदि ये समाधयः Rām. ch.2.41. -4 Penance, religious obligation, devotion (to penance); अस्त्येतदन्यसमाधिभीरुत्वं देवानाम् Ś1; तपः- समाधि Ku.3.24; अथोपयन्तारमलं समाधीना 5.24;5.6;1.59; सर्वथा दृढसमाधिर्भव Nāg.5. -5 Bringing together, concentration, combination, collection; union, a set; सा तस्य धर्मार्थसमाधियुक्तं निशम्य वाक्यम् Rām.4.33.5; तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना R.1.29. -6 Reconciliation, settling or composing differences. -7 Silence. -8 Agreement, assent, promise. -9 Requital. -1 Completion, accom- plishment. -11 Perseverance in extreme difficulties. -12 Attempting impossibilities. -13 Laying up corn (in times of famine), storing grain. -14 A tomb. -15 The joint of the neck; a particular position of the neck; अंसाववष्टब्धनतौ समाधिः Ki.16.21. -16 (In Rhet.) A figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa; समाधिः सुकरं कार्यं कारणान्तरयोगतः K. P.1; see S. D.614. -17 One of the ten Guṇas or merits of style; अन्यधर्मस्ततो$न्यत्र लोकसीमानुरोधिना । सम्यगाधीयते यत्र स समाधिः स्मृतो यथा ॥ Kāv.1.93. -18 A religious vow or self-imposed res- traint. -19 Support, upholding.
  • समाधिः = सम् + आ + धिः | आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – धिः (At the end of comp. only) A receptacle store, reservoir &c.; as in उदधि, इषुधि, वारिधि, जलधि &c.
  • अत्र धि-इति धातुः ? आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – धि I. 6 P. (धियति) T hold, have, possess. -With सम् to make peace, treat with; cf. संधा -II. (or धिन्व्) 5 P. (धिनोति) To please, delight; satisfy; पश्यन्ति चात्मरूपं तदपि विलुलितस्रग्धरेयं धिनोति Gīt.12; धिनोति नास्माञ्जलजेन पूजा त्वयान्वहं तन्वि वितन्यमाना N.8.97; U.5.27; Ki.1.22.
  • अथवा धी-धातुः | धी 4 Ā (धीयते) 1 To disregard, disrespect. -2 To propitiate. -3 To hold, contain. -4 To accomplish, fulfil.
  • अथवा ध्यै-धातुः | ध्यै 1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • धीः [ध्यै भावे क्विप् संप्रसारणं च] 1 (a) Intellect, understanding; धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः R.3.3; cf. कुधी, सुधी &c. धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात् Gāyatrimantra; तत्राज्ञानं धिया नश्येदाभासात्तु घटः स्फुरेत् Vedāntasāra. (b) Mind; दुष्टधी wicked-minded; स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत Bg.2.54; R.3.3. -2 Idea, imagination, fancy, conception; न धियां पथि वर्तसे Ku.6.22; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.136. -3 A thought, intention, purpose, propensity; इमामहं वेद न तावकीं धियम् Ki.1.37. -4 Devotion, prayer. -5 A sacrifice. -6 Knowledge, science. -7 (in Horoscope) The fifth house from the लग्न.
  • In understanding meaning of समाधौ, it is important to keep in mind the meaning of the prefix उपसर्ग सम् also. सम् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता &c, तस्या- मात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty. -2 As prefixed to nouns to form comp. it means ‘like, same, similar’, as in समर्थ. -3 Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’, as in समक्ष. -4 In the Vedas it is sometimes used as a separable preposition (with instr.).
  • समाधौ = In a posture of balance and in the balanced or equanimous state of mind, devoid of any dilemmas or duality or devoid of any bias of any kind

४) अचला = न चला इति अचला (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)

  • The second part चला has been detailed above when discussing निश्चला
  • The prefix उपसर्ग अ merits detailing. आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – The first letter of the alphabet; अक्षंराणामकारो$स्मि Bg.1.33. -अः [अवति, अतति सातत्येन तिष्ठतीति वा; अव्-अत् वा, ड Tv.] 1 N. of Viṣṇu, the first of the three sounds constituting the sacred syllable ओम्; अकारो विष्णुरुद्दिष्ट उकारस्तु महेश्वरः । मकारस्तु स्मृतो ब्रह्मा प्रणवस्तु त्रयात्मकः ॥ For more explanations of the three syllables अ, उ, म् see ओम्. -2 N. of Śiva, Brahmā, Vāyu, or Vaiśvānara.– [अः कृष्णः शंकरो ब्रह्मा शक्रः सोमो$निलो$नलः । सूर्यः प्राणो यमः कालो वसन्तः प्रणवः सुखी ॥ Enm. अः स्याद् ब्रह्मणि विष्ण्वीशकूर्माणङ्करणेषु च। गौरवे$न्तःपुरे हेतौ भूषणे$ङ्घ्रावुमेज्ययोः ॥ Nm. अः शिखायां सिद्धमन्त्रे प्रग्राहे$र्के रथार्वणि । चक्रे कुक्कुटमूर्ध्नीन्दुबिम्बे ब्रह्मेशविष्णुषु ॥ ibid. Thus अः means Kṛiṣṇa, Śiva, Brahmā, Indra, Soma, Vāyu, Agni, the Sun, the life-breath, Yama, Kāla, Vasanta, Praṇava, a happy man, a tortoise, a courtyard, a battle, greatness, a female apartment in a palace, an object or a cause, an ornament, a foot, Umā, sacrifice, a flame, a particularly efficacious mantra, reins, the horse of chariot, a wheel, the head of a cock, the disc of the moon]; ind. 1 A Prefix corresponding to Latin in, Eng. in or un, Gr. a or an, and joined to nouns, adjectives, indeclinables (or rarely even to verbs) as a substitute for the negative particle ऩञ्, and changed to अन् before vowels (except in the word अ-ऋणिन्). The senses of न usually enumerated are six–(a) सादृश्य ‘likeness’ or ‘resemblance’, अब्राह्मणः one like a Brāhmaṇa (wearing the sacred thread &c.), but not a Brāhmaṇa; a Kṣatriya, or a Vaiśya; अनिक्षुः a reed appearing like इक्षु, but not a true इक्षु. (b) अभाव ‘absence’, ‘negation’, ‘want’, ‘privation’; अज्ञानम् absence of knowledge, ignorance; अक्रोधः, अनङ्गः, अकण्टकः, अघटः &c. (c) अन्यत्व ‘difference’ or ‘distinction’; अपटः not a cloth, something different from, or other than, a cloth. (d) अल्पता ‘smallness’, ‘diminution’, used as a diminutive particle; अनुदरा having a slender waist (कृशोदरी or तनुमध्यमा). (e) अप्राशस्त्य ‘badness’, ‘unfitness’, having a depreciative sense; अकालः wrong or improper time; अकार्यम् not fit to be done, improper, unworthy, bad act. (f) विरोध ‘opposition’, ‘contrariety’; अनीतिः the opposite of morality; immorality; असित not white, black; असुर not a god, a demon &c. These senses are put together in the following verse :– तत्सादृश्यमभावश्च तदन्यत्वं तदल्पता । अप्राशस्त्यं विरोधश्च ऩञर्थाः षट् प्रकीर्तिताः ॥ See न also. With verbal derivatives, such as gerunds, infinitives, participles, it has usually the sense of ‘not’; अदग्ध्वा not having burnt; अपश्यन् not seeing; so असकृत् not once; अमृषा, अकस्मात् &c. Sometimes in बहुव्रीहि अ does not affect the sense of the second member : अ-पश्चिम that which has no last, i. e. best, topmost; e. g. विपश्चितामपश्चिमः cf. also R.19.1. अनुत्तम having no superior, unsurpassed, most excellent: (for examples see these words). -2 An interjection of (a) Pity (ah !) अ अवद्यं P.I.1.14 Sk. (b) Reproach, censure (fie, shame); अपचसि त्वं जाल्म P.VI.3.73 Vārt. See अकरणि, अजीवनि also. (c) Used in addressing; अ अनन्त. (d) It is also used as a particle of prohibition. -3 The augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the Imperfect, Aorist and Conditional Tenses.
  • N. B.– The application of this privative prefix is practically unlimited; to give every possible case would almost amount to a dictionary itself. No attempt will, therefore, be made to give every possible combination of this prefix with a following word; only such words as require a special explanation, or such as most frequently occur in literature and enter into compounds with other words, will be given; others will be found self-explaining when the English ‘in’, ‘un’, or ‘not’, is substituted for अ or अन् before the meaning of the second word, or the sense may be expressed by ‘less’, ‘free from’, ‘devoid or destitute of’ &c; अकथ्य unspeakable; अदर्प without pride, or freedom from pride; अप्रगल्भ not bold; अभग unfortunate; अवित्त destitute of wealth &c. In many cases such compounds will be found explained under the second member. Most compounds beginning with अ or अन् are either Tatpuruṣa or Bahuvrīhi (to be determined by the sense) and should be so dissolved.

५) स्थास्यति = स्था-इति धातुः | तस्य लृटि (द्वितीय-भविष्ये) मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • आपटेवर्याणां शब्दकोशे – 1 P. (Ātm. also in certain senses; तिष्ठति- ते, तस्थौ, तस्थे, अस्थात्-अस्थित, स्थास्यति-ते, स्थातुं, स्थित; pass. स्थीयते; the स् of this root is changed to ष् after a preposition ending in इ or उ) 1 To stand; अयं स ते तिष्ठति संगमोत्सुकः Ś.3.13; चलत्येकेन पादेन तिष्ठत्येकेन बुद्धिमान् Su- bhāṣ -2 To stay, abide, dwell, live; ग्रामे or गृहे तिष्ठति -3 To remain, be left; यावदेकानुदिष्टस्य गन्धो लेपश्च तिष्ठति. Ms.4.111; एको गङ्गदत्तस्तिष्ठति Pt.4. -2 To delay, wait; किमिति स्थीयते Ś.2. -5 To stop, cease, desist, stand still; तिष्ठत्येष क्षणमधिपतिर्ज्योतिषां व्योममध्ये V.2.1. -6 To be kept aside; तिष्ठतु तावत् पत्रलेखागमनवृत्तान्तः K. ‘never mind the account of’ &c. -7 To be, exist, be in any state or position; often with participles; मेरौ स्थिते दोग्धरि दोहदक्षे Ku.1.2; व्याप्य स्थितं रोदसी V.1.1; या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वं Ś.1.1; कालं नयमाना तिष्ठति Pt.1; Ms.7.8. -8 To abide by, conform to, obey (with loc.); शासने तिष्ठ भर्तुः V.5. 17. R.11.65. -9 To be restrained; यदि ते तु न तिष्ठेयुरुपायैः प्रथमैस्त्रिभिः Ms.7.18. -1 To be at hand, be obtainable; न विप्रं स्वेषु तिष्ठत्सु मृतं शूद्रेण नाययेत् Ms.5.14. -11 To live, breathe; आः क एष मयि स्थिते चन्द्रगुप्तमभिभवितु- मिच्छति Mu.1. -12 To stand by or near, stand at one’s side, help; उत्सवे व्यसने चैव दुर्भिक्षे शत्रुसंकटे (राष्ट्रविप्लवे) । राज- द्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः ॥ H.1.71 (v. l.). -13 To rest or depend on; जहातु नैनं कथमर्थसिद्धिः संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -14 To do, perform, occupy oneself with; न तिष्ठति तु यः पूर्वां नोपास्ते यश्च पश्चिमाम् Ms.2.13. -15 (Ātm.) To resort or go to (as an umpire), be guided by the advice of; संशय्य कर्णादिषु तिष्ठते यः Ki.3.14. -16 (Ātm.) To offer oneself to (for sexual embrace), stand as a prostitute (with dat.); गोपी स्मरात् कृष्णाय तिष्ठते Sk. on P.I.4.34. -Caus. (स्थापयति-ते) 1 To cause to stand. -2 To lay, set, place, put. -3 To found, establish. -4 To stop. -5 To arrest, check. -6 To raise, erect. -7 To cause to last or continue, make durable. -8 To give in marriage; लोकश्रेष्ठे गुणवति वरे स्थापिता त्वं मयैव Māl.1.5. -9 To instruct in, ini- tiate into. -Desid. (तिष्ठासति) To wish to stand &c.

६) योगम् = योग-इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |

  • योगः [युज् भावादौ घञ् कुत्वम्] 1 Joining, uniting. -2 Union, junction, combination; उपरागान्ते शशिनः समुपगता रोहिणी योगम् Ś.7.22; गुणमहतां महते गुणाय योगः Ki.1.25; (वां) योगस्तडित्तोयदयोरिवास्तु R.6.65. -3 Contact, touch, connection; तमङ्कमारोप्य शरीरयोगजैः सुखैर्निषिञ्चन्तमिवामृतं त्वचि R.3.26. -4 Employment, application, use; एतै- रुपाययोगैस्तु शक्यास्ताः परिरक्षितुम् Ms.9.1; R.1.86. -5 Mode, manner, course, means; ज्ञानविज्ञानयोगेन कर्मणा- मुद्धरन् जटाः Bhāg.3.24.17; कथायोगेन बुध्यते H.1. ‘In the course of conversation’. -6 Consequence, result; (mostly at the end of comp on in abl.); रक्षायोगादयमपि तपः प्रत्यहं संचिनोति Ś.2.15; Ku.7.55. -7 A yoke. -8 A convey- ance, vehicle, carriage. -9 (a) An armour. (b) Put- ting on armour. -1 Fitness, propriety, suitableness. -11 An occupation, a work, business. -12 A trick, fraud, device; योगाधमनविक्रीतं योगदानप्रतिग्रहम् Ms.8.165. -13 An expedient, plan, means in general. -14 Ende- avour, zeal, diligence, assiduity; ज्ञानमेकस्थमाचार्ये ज्ञानं योगश्च पाण़्डवे Mb.7.188.45. इन्द्रियाणां जये योगं समातिष्ठेद् दिवा- निशम् Ms.7.44. -15 Remedy, cure. -16 A charm, spell, incantation, magic, magical art; तथाख्यातविधानं च योगः संचार एव च Mb.12.59.48. -17 Gaining, acquiring, acquisition; बलस्य योगाय बलप्रधानम् Rām.2.82.3. -18 The equipment of an army. -19 Fixing, putting on, practice; सत्येन रक्ष्यते धर्मो विद्या योगेन रक्ष्यते Mb.5.34. 39. -2 A side; an argument. -21 An occasion, opportunity. -22 Possibility, occurrence. -23 Wealth, substance. -24 A rule, precept. -25 Dependence, relation, regular order or connection, dependence of one word upon another. -26 Etymology or derivation of the meaning of a word. -27 The etymological meaning of a word (opp. रूढि); अवयवशक्तिर्योगः. -28 Deep and abstract meditation, concentration of the mind, contempla- tion of the Supreme Spirit, which in Yoga phil. is defined as चित्तवृत्तिनिरोध; स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते Bg. 5.21; सती सती योगविसृष्टदेहा Ku.1.21; V.1.1; योगेनान्ते तनुत्यजाम् R.1.8. -29 The system of philosophy established by Patañjali, which is considered to be the second division of the Sāṁkhya philosophy, but is prac- tically reckoned as a separate system; एकं सांख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति Bg.5.5. (The chief aim of the Yoga philosophy is to teach the means by which the human soul may be completely united with the Supreme Spirit and thus secure absolution; and deep abstract meditation is laid down as the chief means of securing this end, elaborate rules being given for the proper practice of such Yoga or concentration of mind.) -3 A follower of the Yoga system of philosophy; जापकैस्तुल्यफलता योगानां नात्र संशयः Mb.12.2.23. -31 (In arith.) Addition. -32 (In astr.) Conjunction, lucky conjunc- tion. -33 A combination of stars. -34 N. of a parti- cular astronomical division of time (27 such Yogas are usually enumerated). -35 The principal star in a lunar mansion. -36 Devotion, pious seeking after god. -37 A spy, secret agent. -38 A traitor, a violator of truth or confidence. -39 An attack; योगमाज्ञापयामास शिकस्य विषयं प्रति Śiva B.13.7. -4 Steady applica- tion; श्रुताद् हि प्रज्ञा, प्रज्ञया योगो योगादात्मवत्ता Kau. A.1.5; मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी Bg.13.1. -41 Ability, power; एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः Bg. 1.7; पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् 11.8. -42 Equality, sameness; समत्वं योग उच्यते Bg.2.48.
  • अत्र युज्-इति धातुः | I. 7 U. (युनक्ति, युङ्क्ते, युयोज, युयुजे, अयुजत्, अयौक्षीत्, अयुक्त, योक्ष्यति-ते, योक्तुम्, युक्त) 1 To join, unite, attach, connect, add; तमर्थमिव भारत्या सुतया योक्तुमर्हसि Ku.6.79; see pass. below. -2 To yoke, harness, put to; भानुः सकृद्युक्ततुरङ्ग एव Ś.5.4; ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ Bg.1.14. -3 To furnish or endow with; as in गुणयुक्त. -4 To use, employ, apply; प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते Bg.17.26; Ms.7.24. -5 To appoint, set (with loc.); प्रजासु वृत्तिं यमयुङ्क्त वेदितुम् Ki.1.1. -6 To direct, turn or fix upon (as the mind &c.). -7 To concentrate one’s attention upon; मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः Bg.6.14; युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानम् 15. -8 To put, place or fix on (with loc.). -9 To prepare, arrange, make ready, fit. -1 To give, bestow, confer; दध्यक्षताद्भिर्युयुजुः सदाशिषः Bhāg.1.25.29; आशिषं युयुजे. -11 To adhere or cleave to. -12 To enjoin, charge; उवाच चैनं मेधावी युङ्क्ष्वात्मानमिति प्रभो Mb.15.37.3. -13 To put in, insert. -14 To think or meditate upon. -Pass. (युज्यते) 1 To be joined or united with; रविपीत- जला तपात्यये पुनरोघेन हि युज्यते नदी Ku.4.44; R.8.17. -2 To get, be possessed of; इष्टैर्युज्येथाम् Mv.7; इष्टेन युज्यस्व Ś.5; R.3.65. -3 To be fit or right, be proper, to suit (with loc. or gen.); या यस्य युज्यते भूमिका तां खलु भावेन तथैव सर्वे वर्ग्याः पाठिताः Māl.1; त्रैलोक्यस्यापि प्रभुत्वं त्वयि युज्यते H.1. -4 To be ready for; ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व Bg.2. 38,5. -5 To be intent on, be absorbed in, be directed towards; दैवकर्मणि युक्तो हि बिभर्तीदं चराचरम् Ms.3.75;14. 35; Ki.7.13. -6 To be fastened or harnessed. -7 To adhere, to be in close contact. -8 To attain to, pos- sess, obtain. -9 To be made ready. -Caus. (योजयति-ते) 1 To join, unite, bring together; परस्परेण स्पृहणीयशोभं न वेदिदं द्वन्द्वमयोजयिष्यत् R.7.14. -2 To present, give, be- stow; चरोरर्धार्धभागाभ्यां तामयोजयतामुभे R.1.56. -3 To appoint, employ, use; शत्रुभिर्योजयेच्छत्रुम् Pt.4.17. -4 To turn or direct towards; पापान्निवारयति योजयते हिताय Bh. 2.72. -5 To excite, urge, instigate. -6 To perform, achieve. -7 To prepare, arrange, equip. -8 To yoke, harness. -9 To apply, fix, set, place. -1 To furnish or endow with. -11 To surround. -12 To despise, think lightly of. -13 To appoint to. -Desid. (युयुक्षति-ते) To wish to join, yoke, give &c. -II. 1 P., 1 U. (योजति, योजयति-ते) To unite, join, yoke &c.; see युज् above. -III. 4 Ā. (युज्यते) To concentrate the mind (identi- cal with the pass. of युज् I). -IV. 1 Ā. (योजयते) To censure.

७) अवाप्स्यसि – अत्र अव् + आप् इति धातुः | तस्य लृटि (द्वितीय-भविष्ये) मध्यमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • आप् 5. P., rarely 1 P. (आप्नोति or आपति, आप, आपत्, आप्स्यति, आप्तुम्, आप्त) 1 To obtain, attain, get; स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी Bg.2.7; 3.2; 3.19. पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि Ś.1.12; अनुद्योगेन तैलानि तिलेभ्यो नाप्तुमर्हति H. Pr.25; शतं क्रतूनामपविध्नमाप सः R.3.38; so फलम्, कीर्तिम्, सुखम् &c. -2 To reach, go to; overtake, meet, fall in with; शबरीमापतुर्वने Bk.6.59. -3 To pervade, occupy, enter into. -4 To undergo, suffer, meet with; दिष्टान्तमा- प्स्यति भवान् R.9.79; Ms.8.188. -5 To equal. -pass. (आप्यते) 1 To be reached, found, met with, obtained &c. -2 To arrive at one’s end or aim. -3 To become filled. -Caus. (आपयति) 1 To cause to reach or obtain. -2 To cause any one to feel or perceive. -3 To hit.

Overall meaning

Going by the अन्वय

यदा ते श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना बुद्धिः निश्चला समाधौ अचला स्थास्यति तदा योगं अवाप्स्यसि |

one can state the meaning as –

When your intellect, (otherwise) confused by what has been learnt and heard earlier, steadies into a state of equanimity, and stays so, not to be distracted or disturbed, then you will attain योग, you will become attuned (with the fundamental truth).

Notes टिप्पण्यः –

  1. This verse is to be read in continuation with the previous one.

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।

तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ।।२-५२।।

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला |

समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ||२-५३||

As can be seen, the word श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना has a continuation from श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च निर्वेदं गन्ता. In a way श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते बुद्धिः = श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च निर्वेदं गन्तुः ते बुद्धिः

  1. From these two verses, one can say that attaining योग is a two-step process. First get the intellect to transcend श्रुत and श्रोतव्य, i.e. to become श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना and next, it should get steadied into a state of equanimity, and should stay so, not to be distracted or disturbed. That is what has been summarized right in the opening सूत्रम् in पातञ्जलि-योगसूत्राणि – योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः |
  2. Actually in saying that “.. intellect should get steadied into a state of equanimity, and should stay so, not to be distracted or disturbed ..” this goes beyond just निरोधः. That probably is the significance of using two negative adjectives निश्चला and अचला. व्यासमुनि or श्रीकृष्णभगवान् must have used these two negative adjectives निश्चला and अचला, with some clear intent. Going by the definitions in Physics, of three states of equilibrium,  getting intellect steadied into a state of equanimity is like the state of Neutral equilibrium. But getting intellect to stay so, not to be distracted or disturbed, is like getting it into the state of Stable equilibrium. The निश्चला-state is of Neutral equilibrium and अचला-state is of Stable equilibrium.
  3. When giving overall meaning, I have interpreted योगमवाप्स्यसि as “.. you will attain योग, you will become attuned (with the fundamental truth) ..”. I contend that fundamental truth is fundamental because it connotes, what is stable, eternal. Intellect getting into the state is of Stable equilibrium is akin to it becoming conjoined with the fundamental truth.
  4. That state must be the state of eternal bliss, right ? The word योग connotes that state योगावस्था. I have copy-pasted what all is available in the dictionary for the word योग. But this word योग, is not just a word to be understood from any dictionary. To attain the state योगावस्था, should be the goal for all human endeavour, for everyone of us. If that is understood, there will be no strife. That, in a way, is the formula for World Peace. That formula is above all precepts of this religion or that religion.
  5. It is wrongly mentioned by some biased and/or ignorant people, that श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता is a scripture of Hinduism. There is no word “Hindu” anywhere in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता. Just because it is in Sanskrit, it does not become a scripture of Hinduism. Actually none of the so-called Hindu scriptures promote Hinduism. All of them advocate Universal Truth and Universal good.
  6. The word योग and the philosophy of योग is also to be studied and understood for the universal and eternal truth, it connotes. The two-step process of attaining योग, delineated in these two verses is universal and eternal. There is nothing here just for Hindus.
  7. All the guidance given by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् to अर्जुन in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता is actually guidance for all humanity and it is valid at all times. People all across the world, regardless of their faiths and religions should, rather, must study and understand श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता and imbibe the fundamental truth in their conduct. By that, there will be end of all strife and world will be a happy place to live in.

शुभमस्तु |

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