Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 55)
गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५५)
प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ||२-५५||
प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |
आत्मनि एव आत्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञः तदा उच्यते ||२-५५||
Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –
(1) The अन्वय should be –
पार्थ, यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च) तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते |
(2) As noted, the sentence has three clauses –
- यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति
- (यदा) आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च)
- तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते
(3) The sub-clauses (1) and (2) are not one after another. If there was to be any serial order between the actions प्रजहाति and तुष्टः वर्तते, then one would have employed ल्यबन्त प्रहाय of the first action प्रजहाति. Since no such ल्यबन्त प्रहाय is employed, both actions, rather, results of both actions have to happen together and stay.
(4) “and stay” is important. Then only the state of mind प्रज्ञा can be called as स्थित. The deciphering of the compound word स्थितप्रज्ञः should be स्थिता प्रज्ञा यस्य सः
- (4-1) In physics, equilibrium is stated to be of three types – unstable, stable and uniform. Stable equilibrium is not unwavering. In stable equilibrium the body may waver, but will retrieve to its state of equilibrium. In uniform equilibrium, the body will not get disturbed at all. Its centre of gravity is firmly within its base.
- (4-2) It seems that the difference between stable and uniform equilibrium states can be understood by thinking of two words निश्चल and अचल. The synonym for a mountain is not निश्चल, it is अचल.
(5) The concept of “centre of gravity firmly within its base”, there again the part “within its base” seems to explain the locative case सप्तमी विभक्ति used for the word आत्मनि.
(6) And the word तुष्टः seems to connote firm gravitational centre, of the mind. It is well-known that mind is fickle मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् (गीता ६-२६) It has to attain gravity. That can happen only by casting off प्रहाय, what all desires would come to mind मनोगतान् कामान्. Actually मनोगतान् means ‘what have come to mind’, not ‘what would come to mind’. Once ‘what have come to mind’ are banished, the doors of the mind are to be shut off. No more काम-s should have any access at all. So the verb प्रजहाति is to be understood not only to mean ‘casting off’, but also to include ‘shutting the doors forever’. Hence the prefix प्र. It is well said, उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते | Yes उपसर्ग has such बल to include an extended meaning.
(7) Who has to effect such banishing, closing the doors and bringing uniform equilibrium, all this unto the most challenging entity, the mind ? आत्मना एव by oneself !
(8) The word कामः has etymology as [कम्-घञ्]
- कम् 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त) 1 To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; कन्ये कामयमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1. -2 To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्क- ष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82. -3 To have intercourse with; त्वं च मा वरुण कामयासे Rv.1.124.5. -4 To value highly.
- धातुपाठे – कम् कान्तौ
- कान्तिः [कम् भावे क्तिन्] 1 Loveliness, beauty, Me. 15; अक्लिष्टकान्ति Ś.5.19. -2 Brightness, lustre, brilliance; Me.84. -3 Personal decoration or embellishment. -4 Wish, desire. -5 (In Rhet.) Beauty enhanced by love; (S. D. thus distinguishes कान्ति from शोभा and दीप्तिः — रूपयौवनलालित्यं भोगाद्यैरङ्गभूषणम् । शोभा प्रोक्ता सैव कान्ति- र्मन्मथाप्यायिता द्युतिः । कान्तिरेवातिविस्तीर्णा दाप्तिरित्यभिधीयते 13, 131).
- कामः hence seems to mean whatever can entice the mind. Even thoughts can entice the mind and keep it engaged and engrossed.
- In the clause यदा सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति, there is also the adjective सर्वान्. To banish सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् would then mean getting the mind to become totally devoid of any thoughts also. Thoughts are like waves. The ocean of the mind should have no waves, neither on the surface nor beneath the surface.
- In योगसूत्राणि by पातञ्जलिमुनि there is this सूत्रम् – निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ।। १.४७ ।। which speaks of निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् expertise or capability at being निर्विचार i.e. being totally devoid of any thoughts. This सूत्रम् mentions प्रसादः benefit or result of such निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् as अध्यात्मप्रसादः a spiritual exaltation.
(9) The passive voice of the verb उच्यते is important.
- Transformation of सः स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते to active voice, can be जनः तं स्थितप्रज्ञं वक्ति
- The subject in the active voice जनः can raise a query ‘which जनः ?’
- What is actually implied is ‘any जनः any time, anywhere’.
- When a statement is to be stated with omnipotence inbuilt, it is best made non-subjective or non-subject-specific. And the best way to so make it, is to use passive voice.
- That could be the logic for Sanskrit providing change of voice even for intransitive verbs !
- Hail Sanskrit grammar ! Hail Sanskrit ! Hail श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता !!!