Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 56)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 56) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५६) – सोपानः ६२

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः |

वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ।।२-५६।।

पदच्छेदैः –

दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः |

वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीः मुनिः उच्यते ।।२-५६।।

Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –

(1) The अन्वय –

दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीः मुनिः उच्यते |

(2) There are five adjectival phrases here –

  1. दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः
  2. सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः
  3. वीतरागभयक्रोधः
  4. स्थितधीः
  5. मुनिः

Because this is in reply to Arjuna’s questions in 2-54, we need to connect up स्थितधीः with the verb उच्यते. So the other four phrases become explanation of who can be called स्थितधीः.

(3) If this श्लोक is explanation to Arjuna’s question about स्थितधीः, is what was explained in the previous श्लोक, which sounded to be explanation of स्थितप्रज्ञ, different from what is explained here about स्थितधीः ?

  • (3-1) Mentions in the previous श्लोक such as सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाय, आत्मनि आत्मना एव तुष्टः obviously refer to conditioning of one’s mind.
  • (3-2) Conditioning to what extent seems to be explained here. Conditioning such that
    • (3-2-1) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः
    • (3-2-2) सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः
    • (3-2-3) वीतरागभयक्रोधः
    • (3-2-4) मुनिः
  • (3-3) Out of the above four (3-2-1) to (3-2-4),
    • (3-3-1) the first two – (3-2-1) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः and (3-2-2) सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः seem to refer to external impulses causing sorrow and happiness respectively.
    • (3-3-2) The third (3-2-3) वीतरागभयक्रोधः seems to refer to other external impulses, which may cause राग i.e. affection or affliction भय i.e. fear, क्रोध i.e. anger.
    • (3-3-3) The fourth one (3-2-4) मुनिः seems to refer to absorption or internalization of the external impulses. It seems to advocate such internalization, that mind does not respond at all, just does not respond to any of these external impulses. This is possibly best explained by a simile of an ocean in श्लोक (2-70), where it is said – आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् (meaning, just as waters keep flowing into an ocean, which seems to have infinite intake-capacity and hence never outflows)  We shall revisit this discussion when we shall come to (2-70).

(4) I think the phrase दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः becomes easier to understand if reworded as दुःखेषु (संपन्नेषु) अनुद्विग्नमनाः

  • (4-1) दुःखेषु (संपन्नेषु) would be a सति-सप्तमी construct meaning “in the instances of sorrows or griefs presenting themselves”
    • (4-1-1) संपन्नेषु – सं + पद् इति 4 आ. धातुः | पद गतौ (= to come forth) | तस्य क्त-कृदन्तम् विशेषणम् “संपन्न” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य सप्तमी विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
  • (4-2) अनुद्विग्नमनाः – अनुद्विग्नमनस् इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् |
    • (4-2-1) न उद्विग्नम् इति अनुद्विग्नम् (नञ्-तत्पुरुषः)
    • (4-2-2) उद्विग्नम् – उत् + विज् इति 3 उ. धातुः | विजिर् पृथग्भावे (= to become alienated, to become disoriented, to become distressed) | तस्य क्त-कृदन्तम् विशेषणम् “उद्विग्न” | अत्र नपुंसकलिङ्गि | तस्य प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • In Apte’s – विज् I. 3 U. (वेवेक्ति, वेविक्ते, विक्त) 1 To separate, divide. -2 To distinguish, discern, discriminate (usually with वि and allied to विच् with वि q. v.) -II. 6 Ā., 7 P. (विजते, विनक्ति, विग्न) 1 To shake, tremble. -2 To be agitated, tremble with fear. -3 To fear, be afraid; चक्रन्द विग्ना कुररीव भूयः R.14.68. -4 To be distressed or afflicted. -Caus. (वेजयति-ते) To terrify, frighten.
    • (4-2-3) अनुद्विग्नं मनः यस्य सः अनुद्विग्नमनाः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • (4-2-4) अनुद्विग्नमनाः = One, whose mind does not become distressed.
  • (4-3) दुःखेषु (संपन्नेषु) अनुद्विग्नमनाः = One, whose mind does not become distressed, in the instances of sorrows or griefs presenting themselves.

(5) I would like to rephrase सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः also as सुखस्पृहाविगतः

  • (5-1) सुखस्पृहाविगतः – “सुखस्पृहाविगत” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् |
  • (5-2) सुखेषु स्पृहा इति सुखस्पृहा (सप्तमी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • (5-3) सुखस्पृहा विगता यस्मात् सः सुखस्पृहाविगतः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (5-4) स्पृहा [स्पृह्-अञ्] Desire, eager desire, ardent wish, longing, envy, covetousness; कथमन्ये करिष्यन्ति पुत्रेभ्यः पुत्रिणः स्पृहाम् V.3.29; R.8.34.
    • (5-4-1) स्पृह् 1 U. (स्पृहयति-ते) To wish, long for, desire for, yearn, envy (with dat.); स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7; तपःक्लेशायापि स्पृहयन्ति K.; न मैथिलेयः स्पृहयांबभूव भर्त्रे दिवो नाप्यलकेश्वराय R.16.42; Bh.2.45.
    • (5-4-2) स्पृह ईप्सायाम्
  • (5-5) विगता – वि + गम् इति 1 प. धातुः | तस्य क्त-कृदन्तम् विशेषणम् “विगत” | अत्र स्त्रीलिङ्गि |
  • (5-6) सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः or सुखस्पृहाविगतः = One, in whom any desire for happiness has become extinct.

(6) वीतरागभयक्रोधः – “वीतरागभयक्रोध” इति सामासिकं विशेषणम् | अत्र पुँल्लिङ्गि |

  • (6-1) रागः च भयं च क्रोधः च एतेषां समाहारः रागभयक्रोधः (समाहार-द्वन्द्वः)
  • (6-2) वीतः रागभयक्रोधः यस्मात् सः वीतरागभयक्रोधः (बहुव्रीहिः)
  • (6-3) वीतः – वि + इ/ई इति धातू | तयोः क्त-कृदन्तम् विशेषणम् “वीत”
    • इ I. 2 P. (In Dhātup. written as इण्) (एति, इयाय, अगात्, एतुम्, इत) 1 To go, go to or towards, come to or near; शशिनं पुनरेति शर्वरी R.8.56; ईयुर्भरद्वाजमुनेर्निकेतम् Bk. 3.4. -2 To arrive at, reach, obtain, attain to, go to or be reduced to a particular state, fall into; निर्बुद्धिः क्षयमेति Mk.1.14 goes to (ruin, is ruined; so वशम्, शत्रुत्वम्, शूद्रताम् &c.). -3 To return. -4 To go away, retire; elapse, pass. -5 To spring from, come or arise from. -6 To undertake anything (with acc.); सत्रमायन् Vāj. -7 To ask, beg. -8 To be; to appear. -9 To be employed in, go on with, be in a particular condition or relation, with a part. or instr.; कृषन्तो ह स्म वै वपन्तो यन्ति Śat. Br.; गवामयनेनेयुः Kāty. -1 To thrive, prosper. II.1 U. = अय् q. v. III.4 Ā. 1 To come, appear. -2 To run, wander. -3 To go quickly or repeatedly. -4 To ask, request. -Caus. To cause to go or come. [cf. L. eo; Gr. eimi with एमि].
    • ई I. 4 Ā. (ईयते) To go. -II. 2 P. 1 To go. -2 To shine. -3 To pervade. -4 To desire, wish. -5 To throw. -6 To eat. -7 To beg (Ā). -8 To become pregnant.
  • (6-4) रागः [रञ्ज्-भावे घञ् नि˚ नलोपकुत्वे] 1 (a) Colouring, dyeing, tingling. (b) Colour, hue, dye; वचस्तत्र प्रयोक्तव्यं यत्रोक्तं लभते फलम् । स्थायीभवति चात्यन्तं रागः शुक्लपटे यथा ॥ Pt.1.33. -2 Red colour, redness; अधरः किसलयरागः Ś.1.21; Śi.8.15; Ki.16.46. -3 Red dye, red lac; रागेण बालारुणकोमलेन चूतप्रवालोष्ठमलंचकार Ku.3.3;5.11. -4 Love, passion, affection, amorous or sexual feeling; मलिने$पि रागपूर्णाम् Bv.1.1 (where it means ‘redness’ also); Śi.17.2; अथ भवन्तमन्तरेण कीदृशो$स्या दृष्टिरागः Ś.2; -5 Feeling, emotion, sympathy, interest. -6 Joy, pleasure. -7 Anger, wrath; निध्वनज्जवहारीभा भेजे रागरसात्तमः Śi. 19.34. -8 Loveliness, beauty.
    • रञ्ज् 1, 4 U. (रजति-ते, रज्यति-ते, रक्त; pass. रज्यते; desid. रिरंक्षति) 1 To be dyed or coloured, to redden, become red, glow; कोपरज्यन्मुखश्रीः U.5.3; नेत्रे स्वयं रज्यतः 5.36; N.3.12;7.6;22.52. -2 To dye, tinge, colour, paint. -3 To be attached or devoted to (with loc.). देवानियं निषधराजरुचस्त्यजन्ती रूपादरज्यत नले न विदर्भसुभ्रूः N.13.38; S. D.111. -4 To be enamoured of, fall in love with, feel passion or affection for. -5 To be pleased, satisfied, or delighted. -Caus. (रञ्जयति- ते) 1 To dye, tinge, colour, redden, paint; सा रञ्जयित्वा चरणौ कृताशीः Ku.7.19;6.81; Ki.1.4;4.14. -2 To please, gratify, propitiate, satisfy; ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति Bh.2.3; (रजयति also in this sense; see Ki. 6.25); स्फुरतु कुचकुम्भयोरुपरि मणिमञ्जरी रञ्जयतु तव हृदयदेशम् Gīt.1. -3 To conciliate, win over, keep contented; समीक्ष्य स धृतः सम्यक् सर्वा रञ्जयति प्रजाः Ms.7.19. -4 To hunt deer (रजयति only in this sense). -5 Ved. To worship.
  • (6-5) भयम् [बिभेत्यस्मात्, भी-अपादाने अच्] 1 Fear, alarm, dread, apprehension, (often with ablative); भोगे रोगभयं कुले च्युतिभयं वित्ते नृपालाद्भयम् Bh.3.35; यदि समरमपास्य नास्ति मृत्योर्भयम् Ve.3.4. -2 Fright, terror; जगद्भयम् &c. -3 A danger, risk, hazard; तावद्भयस्य भेतव्यं यावद्भयमनागतम् । आगतं तु भयं वीक्ष्य नरः कुर्याद्यथोचितम् H.1.54. -4 The sentiment of fear; see भयानक below; रौद्रशक्त्या तु जनितं चित्तवैकल्यजं भयम् S. D.6. -5 The blossom of Trapa Bispinosa (Mar. शिंगाडा) -यः Sickness, disease.
    • भयम् is derived from धातु भी [ञिभि भये] I. 3 P. (बिभेति, बिभाय-बिभयांचकार, अभैषीत्, भेष्यति, भीत) 1 To fear, dread, be afraid of; मृत्योर्बिभेषि किं बाल न स भीतं विमुञ्चति; रावणाद्बिभ्यतीं भृशम् Bk.8.7; Śi.3.45. -2 To be anxious or solicitous about (Ā.). -II. 1 P. To fear (भाययति, भययति). -Caus. (भाययति) To frighten (anyone) with anything; कुञ्चिकयैनं भाययति Sk.; (भापयते, भीषयते) to frighten, terrify, intimidate; मुण्डो भापयते Sk.; स्तनितेन भीषयित्वा धाराहस्तैः परामृशसि Mk.5.28.
  • (6-6) क्रोधः [क्रुध्-भावे घञ्] 1 Anger, wrath; कामात्क्रोधो$भिजायते Bg.2.62; so क्रोधान्धः, क्रोधानलः &c. -2 (In Rhet.) Anger considered as the feeling which gives rise to the raudra sentiment.
    • क्रोधः is derived from धातु क्रुध् 4 P. (क्रुध्यति, क्रुद्ध) To be angry (with the dative of the person who is the object of anger); हरये क्रुध्यति; but sometimes with words like उपरि, प्रति &c. also; ते ह ब्राह्मणाश्चुक्रुधुः Bṛi. Up.3.1.2; ममोपरि स क्रुद्धः, न मां प्रति क्रुद्धो गुरुः &c.
  • (6-7) वीतरागभयक्रोधः = One, from whom affection or affliction, fear and anger have become extinct.

(7) मुनिः [मन्-इन् उच्च Uṇ.4.122] 1 A sage, a holy man, saint, devotee, an ascetic; मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः Bg.1. 37; दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः । वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ 2.56; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः Ś.2.15; R.1.8;3.49. -2 N. of the sage Agastya. -3 Of Vyāsa; Mb.6.119.4. -4 Of Buddha. -5 of Pāṇini. -6 N. of several plants (पियालु, पराशर and दमनक). -7 The internal conscience (according to Kull. on Ms.8.91 ‘the Supreme Spirit’).

  • In the derivation of मुनिः as मन्-इन्-उत्-च, there is mention of two प्रत्यय-s इन् and उत्
    • इन् = has this quality (as is inherent in the meaning of the verb मन्)
    • उत् = has it elevated, exalted
    • मुनिः = one, who has the quality of meditation, deliberation, thinking by oneself, devoting focused study and has that quality taken to an exalted level.

(8) उच्यते – वच्-इति धातुः | वच् । अ० अनिट् प० । व॒चँ परि॒भाष॑णे (Meanings in English as detailed in Apte’s dictionary, below) | तस्य कर्मणिप्रयोगे लटि (वर्तमानकाले) प्रथमपुरुषे एकवचनम् |

  • I. 2 P. (Ā. also in non-conjugational tenses; in conjugational tenses it is said to be defective in the third person plural by some authorities, or in the whole plural by others; वक्ति, उवाच, अवोचत्, वक्ष्यति, वक्तुम्, उक्त) 1 To say, speak; वैराग्यादिव वक्षि K. P.1; (oft. with two. acc.); तामूचतुस्ते प्रियमप्यमिथ्या R.14.6; sometimes with accusative of words meaning ‘speech’;उवाच धात्र्या प्रथमोदितं वचः R.3.25;2.59; क एवं वक्ष्यते वाक्यम् Rām. -2 To relate, describe; रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये R.1.9. -3 To tell, communicate, announce, declare; उच्यतां मद्वचनात्सारथिः Ś.2; Me.1. -4 To name, call; तदेकसप्ततिगुणं मन्वन्तरमिहोच्यते Ms.1.79. -5 To signify, denote (as sense). -6 To recite, repeat. -7 To censure; reproach; वृत्तिविज्ञानवान् धीरः कस्तं वा वक्तुमर्हति Mb. 12.132.6.
  • II. 1 P. To inform, to tell; L. D. B.
  • Caus. (वाचयति-ते) 1 To cause to speak. -2 To go over, read, peruse; वाचयति नान्यलिखितं लिखितमनेन वाचयति नान्यः । अयमपरो$स्य विशेषः स्वयमपि लिखितं स्वयं न वाचयति ॥ Subhāṣ. -3 To say, tell, declare. -4 To promise. -Desid. (विवक्षति) To wish to speak, intend to say (something); विवक्षता दोषमपि च्युतात्मना त्वयैकमीशं प्रति साधु भाषितम् Ku.5.81.

With the above analysis and meanings word by word, if one should be looking back at the verse and explore overall meaning, it comes to mind that exploring the meaning becomes simpler by putting the अन्वय into a complex sentence of two clauses –

  • (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः (भवति)
  • (सः) स्थितधीः मुनिः उच्यते |
  • The second clause here can be put either as
    • सः स्थितधीः मुनिः उच्यते or as
    • सः मुनिः स्थितधीः उच्यते  

Since this verse by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् is in reply to question by अर्जुन asking स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव | स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् || (2-54) it stands to logic that the second option सः मुनिः स्थितधीः उच्यते is appropriate.

Now, reading together (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः (भवति) सः मुनिः these become the essential qualifications for a person to be called as स्थितधीः. Here again, (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः (भवति) सः मुनिः can be read either as –

  • दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः all being adjectives of मुनिः or as
  • (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः मुनिः (च भवति) सः स्थितधीः उच्यते

To my mind, the last option (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः वीतरागभयक्रोधः मुनिः (च भवति) सः स्थितधीः उच्यते is the most appealing. By this, overall meaning now becomes –

  • (यः) दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्नमनाः one, who is not disturbed by sorrows
  • सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः one, who has no desire for happiness
  • वीतरागभयक्रोधः one who is devoid of affection, fear or anger
  • मुनिः (च भवति) one, who is also in deep meditation
  • सः स्थितधीः उच्यते such one is called as the one with perfectly stable intellect

शुभमस्तु |



Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 55)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 55)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ५५)


प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |

आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ||२-५५||

पदच्छेदैः –

प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् |

आत्मनि एव आत्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञः तदा उच्यते ||२-५५||

Syntactical and Other Deliberations अन्वयविमर्शाश्च –

(1) The अन्वय should be –

पार्थ, यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च) तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते |

(2) As noted, the sentence has three clauses –

  1. यदा (मनुजः) सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति
  2. (यदा) आत्मना एव आत्मनि तुष्टः (वर्तते च)
  3. तदा (सः) स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते

(3) The sub-clauses (1) and (2) are not one after another. If there was to be any serial order between the actions प्रजहाति and तुष्टः वर्तते, then one would have employed ल्यबन्त प्रहाय of the first action प्रजहाति. Since no such ल्यबन्त प्रहाय is employed, both actions, rather, results of both actions have to happen together and stay.

(4) “and stay” is important. Then only the state of mind प्रज्ञा can be called as स्थित. The deciphering of the compound word स्थितप्रज्ञः should be स्थिता प्रज्ञा यस्य सः

  • (4-1) In physics, equilibrium is stated to be of three types – unstable, stable and uniform. Stable equilibrium is not unwavering. In stable equilibrium the body may waver, but will retrieve to its state of equilibrium. In uniform equilibrium, the body will not get disturbed at all. Its centre of gravity is firmly within its base.
  • (4-2) It seems that the difference between stable and uniform equilibrium states can be understood by thinking of two words निश्चल and अचल. The synonym for a mountain is not निश्चल, it is अचल.

(5) The concept of “centre of gravity firmly within its base”, there again the part “within its base” seems to explain the locative case सप्तमी विभक्ति used for the word आत्मनि.

(6) And the word तुष्टः seems to connote firm gravitational centre, of the mind. It is well-known that mind is fickle मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् (गीता ६-२६) It has to attain gravity. That can happen only by casting off प्रहाय, what all desires would come to mind मनोगतान् कामान्. Actually मनोगतान् means ‘what have come to mind’, not ‘what would come to mind’. Once ‘what have come to mind’ are banished, the doors of the mind are to be shut off. No more काम-s should have any access at all. So the verb प्रजहाति is to be understood not only to mean ‘casting off’, but also to include ‘shutting the doors forever’. Hence the prefix प्र. It is well said, उपसर्गेण धात्वर्थो बलादन्यत्र नीयते | Yes उपसर्ग has such बल to include an extended meaning.

(7) Who has to effect such banishing, closing the doors and bringing uniform equilibrium, all this unto the most challenging entity, the mind ? आत्मना एव by oneself !

(8) The word कामः has etymology as [कम्-घञ्]

  • कम् 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त) 1 To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; कन्ये कामयमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1. -2 To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्क- ष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82. -3 To have intercourse with; त्वं च मा वरुण कामयासे Rv.1.124.5. -4 To value highly.
  • धातुपाठे – कम् कान्तौ
    • कान्तिः [कम् भावे क्तिन्] 1 Loveliness, beauty, Me. 15; अक्लिष्टकान्ति Ś.5.19. -2 Brightness, lustre, brilliance; Me.84. -3 Personal decoration or embellishment. -4 Wish, desire. -5 (In Rhet.) Beauty enhanced by love; (S. D. thus distinguishes कान्ति from शोभा and दीप्तिः — रूपयौवनलालित्यं भोगाद्यैरङ्गभूषणम् । शोभा प्रोक्ता सैव कान्ति- र्मन्मथाप्यायिता द्युतिः । कान्तिरेवातिविस्तीर्णा दाप्तिरित्यभिधीयते 13, 131).
  • कामः hence seems to mean whatever can entice the mind. Even thoughts can entice the mind and keep it engaged and engrossed.
  • In the clause यदा सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् प्रजहाति, there is also the adjective सर्वान्. To banish सर्वान् मनोगतान् कामान् would then mean getting the mind to become totally devoid of any thoughts also. Thoughts are like waves. The ocean of the mind should have no waves, neither on the surface nor beneath the surface.
  • In योगसूत्राणि by पातञ्जलिमुनि there is this सूत्रम् – निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ।। १.४७ ।। which speaks of निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् expertise or capability at being निर्विचार i.e. being totally devoid of any thoughts. This सूत्रम् mentions प्रसादः benefit or result of such निर्विचारवैशारद्यम् as अध्यात्मप्रसादः a spiritual exaltation.

(9) The passive voice of the verb उच्यते is important.

  • Transformation of सः स्थितप्रज्ञः उच्यते to active voice, can be जनः तं स्थितप्रज्ञं वक्ति
  • The subject in the active voice जनः can raise a query ‘which जनः ?’
  • What is actually implied is ‘any जनः any time, anywhere’.
  • When a statement is to be stated with omnipotence inbuilt, it is best made non-subjective or non-subject-specific. And the best way to so make it, is to use passive voice.
  • That could be the logic for Sanskrit providing change of voice even for intransitive verbs !
  • Hail Sanskrit grammar ! Hail Sanskrit ! Hail श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता !!!

शुभमस्तु !