Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 60)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Shloka 60) 

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ६०) 

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ।।२-६०।।

पदच्छेदैः –

यततः हि अपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ।।२-६०।।

अन्वयः

  1. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः हि अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति |
  2. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, (तानि) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति |
  3. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि |

अन्वेषणम्

(1) There are three options for the placement of हि in the अन्वय.

  • हि ind. (Never used at the beginning of a sentence) It has the following senses:– 1 For, because (expressing a strict or logical reason); अग्निरिहास्ति धूमो हि दृश्यते GaNaratna-Mahodadhi of Vardhamana; R.5.1. -2 Indeed, surely; देव प्रयोगप्रधानं हि नाठ्यशास्त्रम् M.1; न हि कमलिनीं दृष्ट्वा ग्राहमवेक्षते मतङ्गजः M. 3. -3 For instance, as is well known; प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थ स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत् । सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः R.1.18. -4 Only, alone (to emphasize an idea); मूढो हि मदनेना- यास्यते K.155. -5 Sometimes it is used merely as an expletive.
  • In the first option हि is placed before अपि, as is in the पदच्छेद.
  • In the second option इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, it has the meaning ‘because’
    • Then the अन्वय is better read as comprising three clauses
      • विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि
      • इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि
      • (तानि = प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि ) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति
  • In the third option, मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि, it emphasizes the idea प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति. Here the अन्वय has two clauses
    • विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि
    • प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि
  • It becomes a point for deliberation whether all three options or which one of the three options is appropriate.

(2) The clause विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि has सच्छष्ठीप्रयोगः.

  • The word विपश्चितः was also there in श्लोक 2-42. Study of it is in Post #52
  • There the word was अविपश्चितः and was पुँ. प्रथमा, बहुवचनम्. Here it is पुँ. षष्ठी, एकवचनम्
  • यततः – पुँ. षष्ठी, एकवचनम् of यतत् (शतृ-प्रत्ययेन विशेषणं यत्-धातोः)
    • यत् – 1 Ā. (यतते, यतित) 1 To attempt, endeavour, strive, try (usually with inf. or dat.); सर्वः कल्ये वयसि यतते लब्धुमर्थान् कुटुम्बी V.3.1. -2 To strive after, be eager or anxious for, long for; या न ययौ प्रियमन्यवधूभ्यः सारतरा- गमना यतमानम् Śi.4.45; R.9.7. -3 To exert oneself, persevere, labour. -4 To observe caution, be watchful; यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः Bg.2.60. -5 Ved. To excite, stir up, rouse. -6 To join. associate with. -7 To go, proceed.
    • It is interesting that श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #4.
      • Keeping this meaning #4 in mind, one can say that when विश्वामित्रऋषि was lured by मेनका, it was his alertness, watchfulness, which failed.
      • It is said that by spiritual pursuits one may attain some सिद्धि. That सिद्धि itself often becomes the impediment for further progress, if one indulges in showing off the सिद्धि, thereby losing the track of spiritual pursuit.

(3) The next phrase to discuss is इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि in अन्वय-options 1 and 3 and इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि in अन्वय-option 2.

  • प्रमाथीनि is नपुं. प्रथमा, बहुवचनम् of प्रमाथिन्
  • प्रमाथिन् a. 1 Tormenting, harassing, torturing, afflicting, harrowing; क्व रुजा हृदयप्रमाथिनी क्व च ते विश्वसनीयमायुधम् M.3.2; Māl.2.1; Ki.3.14. -2 Killing, destroying. -3 Agitating, setting in motion; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.60;6.34. -4 Tearing or pulling down, striking down; वर्त्मसु ध्वजतरुप्रमाथिनः R.11.58. -5 Cutting down; प्रमाथिनस्तान् भवमार्गणानाम् (बाणान्) Ki.17.31.
    • It is interesting that श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #3.
  • प्रमाथिन् is derived from धातु प्र + मथ् / मन्थ्
    • मन्थ् मथ् 1, 9 P. (मन्थति, मथति, मथ्नाति, मथित; pass. मथ्यते) To churn, to produce by churning; (oft. with two acc.) सुधां सागरं ममन्थुः or देवासुरैरमृतम्बुनिधिर्ममन्थे Ki.5. 3. -2 To agitate, shake, stir round or up, turn up and down; (fig. also); तस्मात् समुद्रादिव मथ्यमानात् R.16. 79. -3 (a) To crush, grind. (b) To grind down, oppress, afflict, trouble, distress sorely; मन्मथो मां मथ्नन् निजनाम सान्वयं करोति Dk.; जातां मन्ये शिशिरमथितां पद्मिनीं वान्यरूपाम् Me.85 (v. l.). -4 To hurt, injure. -5 To destroy, kill, annihilate, crush down; मथ्नामि कौरवशतं समरे न कोपात् Ve.1.15; अमन्थीच्च परानीकम् Bk.15.46; 14.36. -6 To tear off, dislocate. -7 To mix, mingle.

(4) The next phrase to discuss is प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति.

  • Detailing in the dictionary makes very interesting reading – प्रसभः Force, violence, impetuosity; प्रसभोद्धृतारिः R.2.3. -भम् ind. 1 Violently, forcibly, perforce; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः Bg.2.60; Ms.8.332. -2 Very much, exceedingly; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः Ś.1.5; नार्यो हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् Ṛs.6.25. -3 Importunately; सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तम् Bg.11.41.
    • Is it not interesting that here also श्लोक on hand has itself been quoted for meaning #1 ?
    • प्रसभम् is mentioned as indeclinable from प्रसभः for the meaning प्रसभेन सह i.e. forcefully.

(5) Overall meaning with different अन्वय-s

  • (5-1) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः हि अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, his senses, which are susceptible to excitations, may cause the mind to be distracted forcefully.
  • (5-2) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हि, (तानि) मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, because his senses are susceptible to excitations, they may cause mind to be distracted forcefully.
  • (5-3) कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः पुरुषस्य यततः अपि, प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति हि = Hey son of Kunti, even if a person, who has control over his faculties and (even if) he is watchful, his senses, which are susceptible to excitations, will end up distracting the mind forcefully.
  • (5-4) I must admit that my English translations have not brought out the subtle differences in the three अन्वय-s.

(6) It seems that this श्लोक is a preamble to the next श्लोक. We shall see how the two श्लोक-s connect up.

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o-

Advertisements