Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 62+63)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 62+63)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकौ ६२+६३)

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |

सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ||२-६२||

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः |

स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ।।२-६३।।

पदच्छेदैः –

ध्यायतः विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गः तेषु उपजायते |

सङ्गात् संजायते कामः कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते ||२-६२||

क्रोधात् भवति संमोहः संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः |

स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति ||२-६३||

अन्वयः –

  1. पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते
  2. सङ्गात् कामः संजायते
  3. कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते
  4. क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति
  5. संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति)
  6. स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति)
  7. बुद्धिनाशात् (पुमान्) प्रणश्यति

(1) As can be seen from the अन्वय, the two श्लोक-s together present a sequence of psychoanalysis. It hence becomes good to take them together.

  • The sequence mentioned is –
    1. विषयान् ध्यायतः तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते = Thinking of senses develops sensuousness or attachment.
    2. सङ्गात् कामः = sensuousness or attachment causes desire
    3. कामात् क्रोधः = (non-fulfilment of) desire causes anger
    4. क्रोधात् संमोहः = anger clouds the mind
    5. संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः = clouding of the mind causes digression from lessons learnt
    6. स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः = digression from lessons learnt affects intellect
    7. बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति = Affected intellect destroys personality
  • We shall discuss whether above translations are appropriate.

(2) The first sentence is a complex sentence, because पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः employs सच्छष्ठीप्रयोगः which is a charming Sanskrit style of a phrase serving the function of a subclause.

  • (2-1) In पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः
    • (2-1-1) पुंसः and ध्यायतः have षष्ठी विभक्तिः
    • (2-1-2) ध्यायतः has षष्ठी विभक्तिः of शतृ-कृदन्तम् ध्यायत् from धातुः ध्यै – भ्वा० अनिट् प० । ध्यै॒ चि॒न्ताया॑म् ।
      • ध्यै 1 P. (ध्यायति, ध्यात; desid. दिध्यासति; pass. ध्यायते) To think of, meditate upon, ponder over, contemplate, reflect upon, imagine, call to mind; ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते Bg.2.62; न ध्यातं पदमीश्वरस्य Bh.3.11; पितॄन् ध्यायन् Ms.3.224; ध्यायन्ति चान्यं धिया Pt.1.136; Me.3; Ms.5.47;9.21.
    • (2-1-3) पुंसः – पुंस् इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
      • (1-1-3-1) पुंस् m. [पाति पा-पालने डुमसुन् Uṇ.4.177] (Nom. पुमान्, पुमांसौ, पुमांसः; Instr. du. पुंभ्यां; Voc. sing. पुमन्) 1 A male, male being; पुंसि विश्वसिति कुत्र कुमारी N.5.11. -2 A man, human being; यस्यार्थाः स पुमाँल्लोके H.1.
      • धातुः – पुंस् । चु० सेट् उ० (१.३.७४) । पुंसँ अभि॒वर्ध॑णे
    • (2-1-4) विषयान् – विषय-इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः बहुवचनं च |
      • (2-1-4-1) विषयः – 1 An object of sense; (these are five, corresponding to the five organs of sense; रूप, रस, गन्ध, स्पर्श and शब्द corresponding to the eye, tongue, nose, skin, and ear); श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् Ś.1.1. -2 A worldly object or concern, an affair, a transaction. -3 The pleasures of sense, worldly or sensual objects (usually in pl.); यौवने विषयैषिणाम् R.1.8; शब्दादीन् विषयान् भोक्तुम् -4 An object, a thing, matter; नार्यो न जग्मुर्विषयान्तराणि R.7.12;8.89. -5 An object or thing aimed at,
      • I guess विषय is from धातुः विष्
        • विष् – I. 3 U. (वेवष्टि, वेविष्टे, विष्ट) 1 To surround. -2 To spread through, extend, pervade. -II. 9 P. (विष्णाति) To separate, disjoin. -III. 1 P. (वेषति) To sprinkle, pour out.
        • विष् । भ्वा० सेट् प० । विषु- [सेचने] १.७९४
        • विष् । जु० अनिट् उ० । विषॢ व्याप्तौ ३.१४
        • विष् । क्र्या० अनिट् प० । विष विप्रयोगे ९.६२
      • विषय-s certainly effect all those actions, which are there in the meanings of धातुः विष्
  • (2-1-5) पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः = as a person gets engrossed in thinking about विषय-s
  • (2-2) तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते
    • सङ्गः – obviously the word is derived from धातुः सम् + गम्
      • सम् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता &c, तस्या- मात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty. -2 Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’, as in समक्ष.
      • The word सङ्गः has two components सम् and गः. The second component गः is same as the second component in a word as खगः (खं गच्छति इति खगः) We can likewise interpret सङ्गः as सं गच्छति इति सङ्गः.
      • When you have सङ्गः with something or with somebody, you accompany that, as also that accompanies you. The English proverb “Man is known by the company he keeps” is so very apt. Here the सङ्गः mentioned is with विषयाः
    • तेषु – This pronoun of course stands for विषयाः. Usually सङ्गः should be with the third case तृतीया विभक्तिः. But सपत्मी विभक्तिः here is significant in the sense that तेषु सङ्गः would mean not just keeping company but being involved deeper and deeper.
    • उपजायते – This is from धातुः जन् – दि० सेट् आ० । जनीँ॒ प्रादुर्भा॒वे
      • जन् 4 Ā. (जायते, जज्ञे, अजनि-अजनिष्ट, जनितुम्, जात; pass. जन्यते or जायते) 1 To be born or produced (with abl. of source of birth); अजनि ते वै पुत्रः Ait. Br.; प्राणाद्वायुरजायत Rv.1.9.12; -2 To rise, spring up, grow (as a plant &c.) -3 To be, become, happen, take place, occur; अनिष्टादिष्टलाभे$पि न गतिर्जायते शुभा H.1.6; -4 To be possible, applicable &c. -5 To be born or destined for anything. -Caus. (जनयति) 1 To give birth, beget, cause, produce. -2 To cause, occasion.
      • It is interesting that meaning of धातुः जन् is ‘to be born’. ‘To be born’ has passive sense inherent to it. One does not take birth; one is born.
      • The prefix उप also merits to be interpreted, matching with सप्तमी विभक्तिः of तेषु. The proximity implicit in the meaning of the prefix उप would become intimacy, when proximity becomes closer.  
    • It is interesting to note that sentences (1) to (3) all have verb-form जायते, but with prefixes उप, सम् and अभि employed in this sequence. The respective subject-words and sentences are सङ्गः उपजायते, कामः संजायते and क्रोधः अभिजायते.
      • The prefix उप has the sense of proximity, acquaintance, association.
      • The prefix सम् has the sense of involvement
      • The prefix अभि has the sense of pervading, engulfing, overwhelming.
      • The senses of उप, सम् and अभि have an increasing degree of their effect. Here the effects of सङ्गः, कामः and क्रोधः on the mind, are also of increasing degree.  
  • (2-3) सङ्गात् कामः संजायते – New word here is कामः
    • कामः – [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; often used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम.
    • कम् । भ्वा० सेट् आ० । कमुँ॒ कान्तौ॑ ।
    • सङ्गात् कामः संजायते – This seems to connote the mental state of growing desire or of addiction. This English word ‘addiction’ (ad+diction) possibly suggests that when addicted to something, the person would have the diction or talk of only that and of nothing else.
    • When the desire grows, it becomes greed. Greed knows no limit.
    • In theory of economics, there are laws of diminishing utility, of diminishing returns. These laws do not apply, when logic goes haywire.
    • कामः is corruption of the mind. When mind gets corrupted, logic goes haywire.
  • (2-4) कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते – New word here is क्रोधः
    • क्रोधः – [क्रुध्-भावे घञ्] 1 Anger, wrath; कामात्क्रोधो$भिजायते Bg.2.62; so क्रोधान्धः, क्रोधानलः &c. -2 (In Rhet.) Anger considered as the feeling which gives rise to the raudra sentiment.
    • धातु is क्रुध् (क्रु॒धँ क्रोधे॑ (कोपे॑) । – 4 P. (क्रुध्यति, क्रुद्ध) To be angry (with the dative of the person who is the object of anger); हरये क्रुध्यति; but sometimes with words like उपरि, प्रति &c. also; ते ह ब्राह्मणाश्चुक्रुधुः Bṛi. Up.3.1.2; ममोपरि स क्रुद्धः, न मां प्रति क्रुद्धो गुरुः &c.
    • One can interpret क्रोधः to mean loss of balance of mind or loss of reason, loss of tolerance. Actions of terrorists exhibit their extreme intolerance towards anything that does not conform to their brains, rather, not conforming to their washed brains.
    • The verb here is अभिजायते. क्रोधः pervades the mind, takes charge of the mind. There are any number of instances of drunkards beating their wives.
    • By interpreting क्रोधः to mean loss of balance of mind, one can also agree to why drunkards cannot walk straight. When balance of mind is lost, legs start misbehaving, the voice gets an indifferent pitch, all body-organs start misbehaving !
  • (2-5) क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति – New word here is संमोहः
    • मोहः – [मुह् घञ्] 1 Loss of consciousness, fainting, a swoon, insensibility; मोहादभूत् कष्टतरः प्रबोधः R.14.56; -2 Perplexity, delusion, embarrassment, confusion; यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव Bg.4.35. -3 Folly, ignorance, infatuation; तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम् R.1.2; Ś.7.25. -4 Error, mistake.
    • धातु is मुह् (मुः॒अँ वैचि॑त्त्ये) – 4 P. (मुह्यति, मुग्ध or मूढ) 1 To faint, swoon, lose consciousness, become senseless; इहाहं द्रष्टुमाह्वं तां स्मरन्नेवं मुमोह सः Bk.6.21;1.2;15.16. -2 To be perplexed or bewildered, to be disturbed in mind, be at a loss; आपत्स्वपि न मुह्यन्ति नराः पण्डितबुद्धयः H.1.145; Ki. 18.9. -3 To be foolish, stupid, or infatuated. -4 To fail. -5 To err, mistake.
    • May it be noted that धातु मुह् has two past passive participles मुग्ध or मूढ, as if suggesting two levels of effects of मोह, मूढ more serious than मुग्ध.
    • क्रोधात् संमोहः भवति = When balance of mind is lost, only erroneous thoughts and actions happen. which can end up even in madness.
  • (2-6) संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति) – New word here is स्मृतिविभ्रमः
    • स्मृतिविभ्रमः – This is a compound word स्मृतेः विभ्रमः इति स्मृतिविभ्रमः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
    • स्मृतिः – f. [स्मृ-क्तिन्] 1 Remembrance; recollection, memory; अश्वत्थामा करधृतधनुः किं न यातः स्मृतिं ते Ve.3.21; संस्कारमात्रजन्यं ज्ञानं स्मृतिः T. S.; स्मृत्युपस्थितौ इमौ द्वौ श्लोकौ U.6;4.2. -2 Thinking of, calling to mind. -3 Discrimination, discretion; स्मृतौ हतायां भृतमानदुर्दृशः Bhāg.4.3.17. -8 Understanding.
    • स्मृ – (1) भ्वा० अनिट् प० । स्मृ॒ चि॒न्ताया॑म्  । (2) स्मृ(म्) आ॒ध्याने॑ । (3) स्वा० अनिट् प० । स्मृ॒ [प्रीतिपाल॒नयोः । प्रीतिचल॒नयो॒रित्य॒न्ये] इत्येके॑
    • विभ्रमः – 1 Roaming or wandering about. -2 Whirling or going round, rolling about; निवृत्तसर्वेन्द्रियवृत्तिविभ्रमः Bhāg.1.9.31. -3 Error, mistake, blunder. -4 Disturbance, perturbation; ऊर्मिव्यतिकरविभ्रमप्रचण्डः Mv.6.26.
    • भ्रमः [भ्रम्-घञ्] 1 Moving or roaming about, roving. -2 Turning round, whirling, revolving. -3 Circular motion, rotation. -4 Straying, deviating. -5 An error, a mistake, misapprehension, delusion; शुक्तौ रजतमिति ज्ञानं भ्रमः; भ्रमं संमोहमावर्तमभ्यासाद्विनिवर्तयेत् Mb.12.274.7; भ्रमो द्विविधः विपर्यासः संशयश्च T. S. -6 Confusion, perplexity, embarrassment.
    • भ्रम् – भ्वा० सेट् प० । भ्रमुँ चल॑ने । दि० सेट् प० । भ्रमुँ अन॑वस्थाने ।
    • संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः (भवति) – Having interpreted संमोह as erroneous thoughts and actions, we can consider स्मृति in स्मृतिविभ्रमः to be referring to the subconscious. Right from our childhood experiences get stored in the subconscious. A prick of a needle makes one cautious for entire life to beware of pointed objects. That is what स्मृति subconscious is. संमोह i.e. erroneous thoughts and actions affect the subconscious. Addiction to smoking or to alcoholic drinks blunts the subconscious and no ill effects of smoking or of alcoholic drinks are registered in the subconscious. So the subconscious does not provoke caution or rejection. Such failure of the subconscious is स्मृतिविभ्रमः.
    • Computers have BIOS (Built In Operating System). When we put the computer on, it boots by BIOS getting activated. No computer can work if its BIOS is corrupted.
  • (2-7) स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति) – Here word used instead of स्मृतिविभ्रमः is स्मृतिभ्रंश. Also new word is बुद्धिनाशः.
    • स्मृतेः भ्रंशः इति स्मृतिभ्रंशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
    • बुद्धेः नाशः इति बुद्धिनाशः (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः) |
    • भ्रंशः – [भ्रंश् भावे घञ्] 1 Falling off, dropping down, fall, slipping or falling down; सेहे$स्य न भ्रंशमतो न लोभात् R.16.74; कनकवलयभ्रंशरिक्तप्रकोष्ठः Me.2. -2 Decline, decrease, decay. -3 Fall, destruction, ruin, overthrow. -4 Losing, loss, deprivation; स्मृतिभ्रंशाद् बुद्धिनाशः Bg.2.63;
    • बुद्धिः – f. [बुध्-क्तिन्] 1 Perception, comprehension. -2 Intellect, understanding, intelligence, talent; शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः R.1.19. -3 Information, knowledge; बुद्धिर्यस्य बलं तस्य H.2.122 ‘knowledge is power’; P.I.4.52. -4 Discrimination, judgement, discernment; विदेशेष्वपि विज्ञाताः सर्वतो बुद्धिनिश्चयाः Rām.1.7.17. -5 Mind; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः M.1.2;
    • धातुः बुध् (भ्वा० सेट् उ० । बुधिँ॑र् बोध॑ने । दि० अनिट् आ० । बु॒धँ॒ अव॒गम॑ने ।) – 1 U., Ā. (बोधति-ते, बुध्यते, बुद्ध) 1 To know, understand, comprehend; क्रमादमुं नारद इत्यबोधि सः Śi.1. 3;9.24; -2 To perceive, notice, recognise, mark; हिरण्मयं हंसमबोधि नैषधः N.1.117 -3 To deem, regard, consider, esteem &c. -4 To heed, attend to. -5 To think, reflect.
    • नाशः – [नश्-भावे घञ्] 1 Disappearance; गता नाशं तारा उपकृतमसाधाविव जने Mk.5.25. -2 Frustration, destruction, ruin, loss; नेहाभिक्रमनाशो$स्ति Bg.2.4
    • धातुः नश् (ण॒शँ अद॑र्शने) – I. 4. P. (नश्यति, ननाश, अनशत्, नङ्क्ष्यति, नशिष्यति नष्ट; caus. नाशयति; desid. निनङ्क्षति, निनशिषति) 1 To be lost, to disappear, vanish, become invisible; ध्रुवाणि तस्य नश्यन्ति H.1; तथा सामा न नश्यति Ms.8.247; Y.2.58; क्षणनष्टदृष्टतिमिरम् Mk.5.24. -2 To be destroyed, to perish, die, be ruined; जीवनाशं ननाश च Bk.14.31
    • स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति) – By the analogy of a computer, that no computer can work if the BIOS fails is possibly the best and simplest explanation of स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः (भवति).
  • (2-8) बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति – When intellect is affected man is no different than any other animal.

(3) This psychoanalysis starts with पुंसः विषयान् ध्यायतः and ends up at प्रणश्यति. It is a downfall into an abyss. One needs a savior, a Krishna.  

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

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