Epilogue of Chapter 2 गीतायाः द्वितीयाध्यायस्य समापनवाक्यम्
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गितासु उपनिषत्सु
There is such समापनवाक्यम् at the end of every अध्याय. It was there at the end of the first अध्याय also. There are only two changes in it from chapter to chapter. The title is new. Also the title number is appropriate. Here the title is सांख्ययोग and the serial number is द्वितीय.
Since the rest words are all same, they were discussed when studying the epilogue of chapter 1 at https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/1-epilogue/
It would be good to discuss here the title of this chapter सांख्ययोग.
This word सांख्य has already been there in 2-39. See https://study1geetaa2sanskrit.wordpress.com/category/2-39/
Apart from what was detailed there, etymology of the word सांख्य can be traced from
- धातुः सम् + ख्या 2 उ. | ख्या प्रकथने – To elaborate, to explain
- The prefix सम् has many shades of meaning. In Apte’s dictionary it is detailed “.. सम् ind. 1 As a prefix to verbs and verbal derivatives it means (a) with, together with, together; as in संगम्, संभाषण, संधा, संयुज् &c.). (b) Sometimes it intensifies the meaning of the simple root, and may be translated by ‘very, quite, greatly, thoroughly, very much’; संतुष्, संतोष, संन्यस्, संन्यास, संता &c, तस्यामात्मानुरूपायामात्मजन्मसमुत्सुकः R.1.33. (c) It also expresses completeness, perfection, or beauty. -2 As prefixed to nouns to form comp. it means ‘like, same, similar’, as in समर्थ. -3 Sometimes it means ‘near’, ‘before’, as in समक्ष. -4 In the Vedas it is sometimes used as a separable preposition (with instr.). ..”
- So सांख्य becomes such narration, explanation, which is thorough, perfect, most appropriate.
- Apte’s dictionary lists संख्या as a धातुः by itself. However it is listed with the same गण, 2 P. The idea behind listing both ख्या and संख्या is good, because such listing would give specific meaning a धातु gets, due to a specific prefix. In the dictionary, “.. संख्या 2 P. 1 To count, enumerate, calculate, sum up; तावन्त्येव च तत्त्वानि सांख्यैः संख्यायन्ते Ś. B. -2 Ved. To appear along with, be connected with… “
As was detailed in the epilogue of first chapter, अन्वयः of सांख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः could be rather put as नाम, (अयं) द्वितीयोऽध्यायः सांख्ययोगः. Truly this second chapter is सांख्ययोगः. That leads one to check what all is elaborated in this chapter conforms to its title सांख्ययोग. That is, we should check
- whether it appeals to be a good gist drawn from सांख्य-philosophy. To do this check, one needs to know, what the सांख्य-philosophy is. As stated at study of 2-39, in Apte’s dictionary “… सांख्यः अथवा सांख्यम् – Name of one of the systems of Hindu philosophy, attributed to sage कपिल; This philosophy is so called because it ‘enumerates’ 25 तत्त्व-s or true principles; Its chief object is to effect emancipation of the twenty-fifth तत्त्व i.e. the पुरुष or soul from the bondage of worldly existence – the fetters of phenomenal creation – by conveying a correct knowledge of the twenty-four other तत्त्व-s and by properly discriminating the soul from them. It regards the whole universe to be a development of an inanimate principle called प्रकृति while the पुरुष is altogether passive and simply a looker on. It agrees with the वेदान्त in being synthetical and so differs from the analytical न्याय and वैशेषिक; but its great point of divergence from वेदान्त is that it maintains two principles, which वेदान्त denies, and that it does not admit God as the creator and controller of the universe, which वेदान्त affirms…”
- whether it is such narration, explanation, which is सांख्यः अथवा सांख्यम् thorough, perfect, most appropriate.
- In गीतादर्शन Osho is said to have proposed that, what all was stated by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was the thorough, perfect, most appropriate answer to all doubts of अर्जुन.
- श्रीकृष्णभगवान् did that right away. Osho is said to have likened this to a strategy, which has no motives for self-benefit.
- To have motives of self-benefits is attitude of shop-keepers or of a businessman. These persons know what will sell easily. So they would not present to the customer that, what is the best answer to the customer’s interest. They will first present those items, which are difficult to sell.
(3) We can also check whether there is enumeration, which is an important shade of meaning of संख्या as a धातुः or as a स्त्रीलिङ्गि नाम meaning ‘number’.
- Enumeration brings to mind that there are four strategies to change the thinking of a person, साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद, साम to bring the thinking to some synchronizing, दाम to emphasize positive effects, दण्ड to threaten of ill-effects, भेद to challenge and question veracity of the person’s line of thinking. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् had it in mind that the thinking of अर्जुन should change. We can say that श्रीकृष्णभगवान् employed all the four strategies.
- In saying अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वम् (2-11) it was भेद strategy.
- In saying अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् (2-26) it was साम strategy.
- In saying अथ चेत्वमिमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि पापमवाप्स्यसि (2-33), अकीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति (2-34), लाघवं यास्यसि (2-36), it was दण्ड strategy.
- In saying हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम्. श्रीकृष्णभगवान् (2-37) explained that either way the result will be beneficial. This was दाम strategy.
(4) Having delineated साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद up to 2-37, in 2-38 itself श्रीकृष्णभगवान् says ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि and supplements it तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् in 2-50.
- If अर्जुन would have accepted ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व (2-38), there was no need for all further 34 श्लोक-s of द्वितीयोऽध्यायः itself and of course nothing further of all the rest of गीता.
- Possibly श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was alongside of narration, doing mind-reading and face-reading and reading of body-language of अर्जुन continuously and checking whether अर्जुन was getting motivated enough to fight the war.
- श्रीकृष्णभगवान् continued further after 2-38, right up to 2-53 तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि… because he did not see अर्जुन, ready for war.
- What happened by the narration up to 2-53 was that अर्जुन’s inquisitiveness had been kindled, for him to ask स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा ..
(5) Even if we would not have studied सांख्यम् of sage कपिल, we can surmise that all arguments of साम-दाम-दण्ड-भेद-नीति-s are based on सांख्यम् and even the explanations from 2-55 to 2-72 in answer to (2-54) स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा are based on सांख्यम्. That then becomes justification for the title of the chapter being सांख्ययोग.
- It would become an interesting exercise to enlist which concepts of सांख्यम् seem to have been delineated in 2-11 to 2-72.
- We all live many lives – अहं न आसम् (एवं) तु न, वयं सर्वे अतःपरं न भविष्यामः एवमपि न (2-12)
- As there are the phases of childhood, youth and old age in the current body-form, there is also transition into another body. One should not get moved at that. (2-13). The ‘embodied’ does give away a useless body and enters a new one. (2-22). Life is only the manifest phase of a being. Being also has a beginning, which is merely a non-manifest phase. Death is also nothing but a non-manifest phase. (2-28) – यथा अस्मिन् देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा, तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः | धीरः तत्र न मुह्यति (2-13) | देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहाय अन्यानि नवानि संयाति (2-22) | भूतानि अव्यक्तादीनि व्यक्तमध्यानि अव्यक्तनिधनानि एव (2-28) |
- The one, that created all this (world) is everlasting. – येन इदं सर्वं ततं तत्तु अविनाशि (इति) विद्धि | (2-17)
- The soul is neither born nor does it die. अयं (आत्मा) कदाचित् न जायते म्रियते वा (2-20)
- It does not become graceful to be diswayed from appropriate task. – स्वधर्मं च आवेक्ष्य विकम्पितुं न अर्हसि (2-31)
- For क्षत्रिय-s such war is door to heaven, which has opened automatically – क्षत्रियाः ईदृशं युद्धं यदृच्छया अपावृतं स्वर्गद्वारम् (इव) लभन्ते (2-32)
- There is no sin in fighting with the resolve of taking happiness or sorrow, gain or loss, victory or defeat as equal. Such intellect is only steadfastness. – सुखदुःखे लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ समे कृत्वा युद्धाय युज्यस्व | एवं पापं न अवाप्स्यसि (2-38) एषा सांख्ये योगे अभिहिता बुद्धिः (2-39)
- By such intellect one relinquishes bondage with action. – (अनया) बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि (2-39)
- Such intellect freed from fruits or results of actions frees one from the cycle of birth and death. – बुद्धियुक्ताः कर्मजं फलं त्यक्त्वा हि जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः (भवन्ति) | अनामयं पदं गच्छन्ति | (2-51)
- One, who is able to make his organs withdrawn from their subjects of interest, has his intellect steadfast. – यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता (2-68)
- He who has renounced all desires and expectations, all attachments and associations, all doership, and is yet full of action, attains peace. Such state is the state as of ब्रह्मन्. Having attained such state, one, who carries it until the last breath merges with the ब्रह्मन्. – यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निःस्पृहः निर्ममः निरहङ्कारः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः | (यः) एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति, (सः) अन्तकालेऽपि अस्यां स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति | (2-71, 2-72)
Does this appeal to be a good summary of सांख्यम् as delineated in this chapter ?