गीतायामुत्तमपुरुषः Also, what is प्रकृति ?

In this title, there are two words पुरुष and प्रकृति, which are closely related, especially from the metaphysical perspective as propounded in प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि (13’19). Both पुरुष and प्रकृति have no beginning (and hence have no ending ?!)

Thinking of the word पुरुष, what comes to mind is पुरुषसूक्तम्, which should be The scripture, which should be giving the best knowledge of what पुरुष is.

But thinking of the word पुरुष in the context of गीता, I tend to think more specifically of उत्तमपुरुषः. The entire fifteenth chapter merits an independent study in this context, because it has the title पुरुषोत्तमयोगः.

There is great difference in the grammars of उत्तमपुरुषः and पुरुषोत्तमयोगः

  • उत्तमः पुरुषः इति उत्तमपुरुषः is simple कर्मधारयविग्रहः
  • पुरुषेषु उत्तमः इति पुरुषोत्तमः / तेन सह योगः तस्य योगः वा पुरुषोत्तमयोगः (!)

Anyway, thinking first of उत्तमपुरुषः, there are many, many instances or quotes in गीता, wherein श्रीकृष्णभगवान् speaks of Himself, using grammatical उत्तमपुरुषः i.e. forms in singular of अस्मद्-सर्वनाम (अस्मद्-सर्वनाम्नः एकवचन-रूपाणि) – अहम्, माम् (मा), मया, मह्यम् (मे), मत् (मत्तः), मम (मे) and मयि, as also मामिकाम् (see 9’7) and also मत् as the first component of compound words e.g. मत्स्थानि in 9’4.

Now, what I am musing upon is, whether browsing through all such quotes would reveal some knowledge of Who He is, OR What He is, what His basic, innate nature प्रकृति is, why He is there for ….. Maybe, studying all those quotes may itself become sort of आध्यात्मिकी साधना ?!

Let me acknowledge that this thought-process is provoked by Mr. Valerio Virgini, who pointed my attention to the word प्रकृति

  1. mentioned as सर्वभूतानि मामिकां प्रकृतिं यान्ति in 9’7
  2. as मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सचराचरम् सूयते in 9’10
  3. also as इमं कृत्स्नम् अवशं भूतग्रामं प्रकृतेर्वशात् पुनः पुनः विसृजामि in 9’8

The word प्रकृति as appearing in the three quotes above seems to connote different things. OR are they different aspects of one and the same thing ? At this point one must also take note of परा and अपरा प्रकृति-s detailed in 7’4 and 7’5.

  • भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च / अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा (7’4)
  • अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् / जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् (7’5)

One common factor in all these quotes (except 9’8) is some form or the other of अस्मद्-सर्वनाम्नः एकवचनस्य रूपम्, which I have marked in red. I have also everywhere made  the word प्रकृति bold.

At this point it would be appropriate to also take note of the mention of प्रकृति in Chapter 13.

  • प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि / विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान् (13’19)
  • कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते / पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते (13’20)
  • पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् / कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु (13’21)

Having compiled as many quotes containing the word प्रकृति, a curiosity crops up, where else does one find this word प्रकृति all across गीता ? Does the word have any different connotation anywhere there ? One does not have to do any big exercise on this, because there is an interesting index श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतान्तर्गतपदानाम् अकारादिवर्णानुक्रमः in श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता (शाङ्करभाष्य हिन्दी-अनुवादसहित)  by गीताप्रेस, गोरखपूर It seems that the book was first published in विक्रमसंवत् १९८८ i.e. 1931 AD. What I have is a copy of 26th reprint in विक्रमसंवत् २०६३ i.e. 2006 AD. One can also refer to BhagavadgitaWordIndex.pdf linked here. This publication as per the Editorial note is of 1943, though author’s Preface is of 1945 (?!)

Anyway tabulated below are the extracts for the word प्रकृति from Page 121 of the pdf. Here author P. C. Diwanji gives two meanings of प्रकृति as primordial matter or one’s innate nature.

I am tempted to question, how good the meaning “primordial matter” is. Note, primordial means “existing at or since the beginning of the world or the universe”. This meaning of primordial is close enough to प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि (13’19). My question is about the word “matter”. The detailing of अष्टधा अपरा प्रकृति in (7’4) includes खम्, मनः, बुद्धिः and अहङ्कारः. By my knowledge, none of these have any material content. The other four components of अष्टधा अपरा प्रकृति viz. भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः do have material content.

 

 फ्रकृति - 1 प्रकृति 2

The difference between परा प्रकृति and अपरा प्रकृति then seems to be hinging on the mention of the word जीवभूताम् in the context of परा प्रकृतिः in (7’5). This परा प्रकृतिः is further credited with its nature and purpose being यया इदं जगत् धार्यते (it upholds and sustains this जगत्).

  • The verb धार्यते is in passive voice, which then should have the subject-word of active voice put in तृतीया विभक्तिः. The word यया is in तृतीया विभक्तिः. But I am tempted to think that तृतीया विभक्तिः of यया i.e. तृतीया विभक्तिः of परा प्रकृतिः is more in the instrumental sense करणकारका तृतीया. The actual subject-word in the active voice can be something else. May I put it as पुरुषेण इदं जगत् अनया परया प्रकृत्या धार्यते meaning “this world is upheld and sustained by The पुरुष, by means of that जीवभूताम् परा प्रकृतिः (!)”. By this जीवभूताम् परा प्रकृतिः becomes the modus operandi of how The पुरुष upholds and sustains the world. Does that then become the bigger picture, rather, the magnificent video of विश्वरूपदर्शनम्, how the ways of the world happen ?
  • Should it not be interesting to understand at his stage the word जगत् ? In the first मन्त्र in ईशावास्योपनिषत् we have ईशावास्यमिदं सर्वं यत्किञ्च जगत्यां जगत्. When studying the मन्त्र I got a prompt to study the etymology of the word जगत्. It has its etymology from जज् जञ्ज् 1 P. (जजति or जञ्जति) To fight, to struggle. Struggle is replete of activity. Etymology of प्रकृतिः (प्रकृष्टा कृतिः) also leads to similar meaning, replete of activity.
  • Does not कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते (13’19) also lend similar meaning ? This meaning seems to apply uniformly even to परा प्रकृति and अपरा प्रकृति. If so, लोकमान्य तिलक seems justified in his contention that philosophy of गीता is primarily कर्मयोगशास्त्रम्.
    • कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते (13’19) merits some deliberation.

कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते (13’19)

  • कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे = कार्याणां कारणानां च कर्तृत्वम् तत् कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वम् → तस्मिन्निति कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे
  • हेतुः – This word has both the meanings – the objective and the means to achieve the objective.  
  • कार्यकारणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते = प्रकृति as is called, is the objective and the means unto occurrence of  causes and effects. For example the occurrences of the phenomena in magnetism “like poles repel and unlike poles attract”  have both, the causes and effects inherent (dictionary meaningExisting in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute”).
  • Above example and definition of प्रकृति can as well be suggestive of प्रकृति being primarily the game of “energy-potentials”, happening all across the universe or all across the cosmos, non-stop, incessantly. We individuals are always a part of that game. Even after death, the dead body withering in the grave, is also a part of that प्रकृति “the game of energy-potentials”. Knowledge of this would also make one aware and knowledgeable of the vanity of striving to become wealthier or to become more famous or striving to become happier also  (!)
  • Even happiness, even eternal bliss should be let to happen and should not be strived for. That seems to be the significance of the title of the last, eighteenth chapter being मोक्षसंन्यासयोगः (!)
  • Every occurrence, including its causes and effects is how प्रकृति runs and would continue to run the game of energy-potentials all across the cosmos, incessantly.

In continuation of the above discussion about पुरुष and प्रकृति, it should be logical to now study पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् / कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु (13’21)

  • There is a challenge here to decipher the compound word प्रकृतिस्थः. Of the two components, the second component स्थः (= तिष्ठति) is clear. But for connecting it with the first component प्रकृति, there can be different options.
    • पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थः भवति = पुरुषः प्रकृत्यां तिष्ठति, then सः प्रकृतिजान् गुणान् भुङ्क्ते, meaning, when पुरुषः devolves into प्रकृति, He पुरुषः (naturally) acquires प्रकृतिजान् गुणान्.
    • पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थः भवति = पुरुषः प्रकृत्या तिष्ठति, पुरुषः manifests by means of प्रकृति, He पुरुषः becomes adorned with प्रकृतिज-गुण-s, meaning पुरुषः as such has no गुण-s. Rather, पुरुषः is गुणातीत, as advocated in the fourteenth chapter. Or पुरुषः is अक्षरब्रह्म, as mentioned in the eighth chapter.
  • श्रीकृष्णभगवान् is also that manifestation of पुरुषः when पुरुषः प्रकृतिजान् गुणान्.भुङ्क्ते (!)

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

 

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७’१२

ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये ।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ॥ ७’१२॥

पदच्छेदैः – ये च एव सात्त्विकाः भावाः राजसाः तामसाः च ये मत्तः एव इति तान् विद्धि न तु अहं तेषु ते मयि 

There are no compound words in this verse. Just putting into syntax, one can read this as भावाः ये सात्त्विकाः च राजसाः च ये तामसाः एव (सन्ति), तान् मत्तः एव (विद्धि), अहम् तेषु न (अस्मि), ते तु मयि (सन्ति) इति (अपि) विद्धि ।

If we get meanings of the words, interpretation of the verse should come through straightforward. 

भावाः is पुँल्लिङ्गी, and प्रथमा वि. बहुवचनम् of भावः [भू-भावे घञ्] 

  1. Being, existing, existence.
  2. There are many other meanings given in the dictionary. But we can explore with this meaning.
  3. भावाः encompasses all that exists. 

 सात्त्विकाः

  1. सात्त्विक a. (-की f.) [सत्वगुणेन तत्कार्येण मनसा वा निर्वृत्तः ठञ्] 1 Real, essential. -2 True, genuine, natural. -3 Honest, sincere, good. -4 Virtuous, amiable. -5 Vigorous. -6 Endowed with the quality Sattva (goodness). -7 Belonging to or derived from the Sattva quality

राजसाः 

  1. राजस a. (-सी f.) [रजसा निर्मितम् अण्] Relating to or influenced by the quality rajas, endowed with the quality rajas or passion

तामसाः 

  1. तामस a. (-सी f.) [तमो$स्त्यस्य अण्] 1 Dark, consisting of darkness -2 Affected by or relating to तमस् or the quality of darkness (the third of the three qualities of nature) -3 Ignorant. -4 Vicious.

मत्तः –

  1. This is मत् + तः
  2. Actually मत् is पञ्चमी विभक्तिः, एकवचनम् of अस्मद्.
  3. But it is also used as a partial component in a compound word as in मत्कर्म (my job). 
  4. तः is an optional suffix for पञ्चमी विभक्तिः 
  5. मत्तः = from me.

Meaning of the verse then becomes 

  1. भावाः ये सात्त्विकाः च राजसाः च ये तामसाः एव (सन्ति) = All that exists, whether virtuous, mediocre or vicious
  2. तान् मत्तः एव (विद्धि) = understand them to be from me only
  3. अहम् तेषु न (अस्मि) = I am not in them.
  4. (अपि)तु ते मयि (सन्ति) = Nevertheless they are in me 
  5. इति (अपि) विद्धि = understand this also.

Discussion – 

  1. General tendency among people is not to own viciousness. Here श्रीकृष्णभगवान् says “All that exists, whether virtuous, mediocre or vicious is from me only”. 
  2. But having made all that exists to exist, does he own their virtuosity, mediocrity or viciousness ? “अहम् तेषु न (अस्मि) = I am not in them” seems to negate ownership of the behavior, what they would indulge in, after having come into existence ‘from Him’.
  3. The next statement “ते तु मयि (सन्ति) = They are in me” sounds like the story in Bible, of the father accepting the Prodigal Son back into the family. 
  4. But from a much vaster metaphysical perspective, looking at the canvas of the universe or of the cosmos, one can appreciate that, the whole canvas cannot exist in ‘every particulate, that is prompted to exist’. So, the अहम् of अहम् तेषु न is the canvas and certainly the canvas अहम् would not exist तेषु in them. But all the same, all that is prompted to exist, exists on the canvas ते मयि (सन्ति) ‘they are in me’.
  5. When discussing this verse yesterday (Friday, Feb. 18, 2017) another metaphor came to mind. Say, there is the field with crop of wheat. But the soil would have allowed some weeds and some thorny creepers also to exist. Now to detail the metaphor, let us say the field or the soil is अहम्, the wheat are the सात्त्विकाः भावाः, the weeds राजसाः भावाः and the thorny creepers तामसाः भावाः. Obviously the soil does not exist in the wheat plants or in the weeds or in the thorny creepers अहम् तेषु न. But they all emanate from the soil and exist on the field ते तु मयि (सन्ति). 
  6. This verse seems to hint at विश्वरूपदर्शनम् which would come in the eleventh chapter. 

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-

Studying gItA and Sanskrit together Chapter 2, Verses 70 to 72

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकाः ७०, ७१, ७२)

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठम् |

समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् |

तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे |

स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ||२-७०||

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान् पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः |

निर्ममो निरहंकारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ||२-७१||

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति |

स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ||२-७२||

पदच्छेदैः

आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् ।

समुद्रम् आपः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।

तद्वत् कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे ।

सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति न कामकामी ||२-७०||

विहाय कामान् यः सर्वान् पुमान् चरति निःस्पृहः |

निर्ममः निरहंकारः सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति ||२-७१||

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ न एनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति |

स्थित्वा अस्याम् अन्तकाले अपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति ||२-७२||

अन्वयाः –

  1. यद्वत् आपः आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम् प्रविशन्ति
  2. तद्वत् सर्वे कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति
  3. सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति
  4. कामकामी (शान्तिम्) न (आप्नोति) |
  5. यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति
  6. सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति |
  7. पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति)
  8. एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति |
  9. अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति |

अन्वेषणमभ्यासश्च Study and deliberation –

(1) यद्वत् आपः आपूर्यमाणम् अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम् प्रविशन्ति तद्वत् सर्वे कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति –

  • Some words make an interesting study –
  • यद्वत् … तद्वत् = यथा … तथा
  • आपः – अप् f. [आप् -क्विप् -ह्रस्वश्च Uṇ.2.58] (Declined in classical language only in pl.; आपः, अपः, अद्भिः, अद्भ्यः, अपाम् and अप्सु, but in singular and pl. in Veda) 1 Water (regarded in Ved. as sacred divinities, आपो देवीः); खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिः Ms.2.6. Water is generally considered to be the first of the 5 elements of creation, as in अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् Ms.1.8; या सृष्टिः स्रष्टुराद्या Ś.1.1; but in Ms.1.78 it is said to have been created from ज्योतिस् or तेजस् after मनस्, आकाश, वायु and ज्योतिस् or अग्नि; ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः । अद्भयो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः ॥
  • आपूर्यमाणम् – The शानच्-प्रत्यय मान/माण is obvious here. Hence धातु is आत्मनेपदी and can be with passive voice.
    • पॄ 3, 9 P. (पिपर्ति, पृणाति, पपार, अपारीत्, परि-री-ष्यति, परि-री-तुम्, पूर्ण; pass. पूर्यते; caus. पूरयति-ते; desid. पिपरि- री-षति, पुपूर्षति) 1 To fill, fill up, complete. -2 To fulfil, gratify (as hopes &c.).   
    • पूर् I. 4 Ā (पूर्यते, पूर्ण) 1 To fill, fill out (allied in this sense with pass. of पॄ q. v.). -2 To please, satisfy. -II. 1 U. (पूरयति-ते, पूरित; strictly the Caus. of पॄ q. v.) 1 To fill; को न याति वशं लोके मुखे पिण्डेन पूरितः Bh.2.118; Śi.9.64;16.34.
    • आपूर्यमाणम् = Because it is adjectival of समुद्र it is पुँल्लिङ्गि द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of आपूर्यमाण
    • आपूर्यमाणः समुद्रः – Sea being filled up. The prefix आ lends an interesting shade of meaning as ‘sea, ever being filled up’. Note the passive voice.
  • अचलप्रतिष्ठम् – This also is adjectival of समुद्र Hence पुँल्लिङ्गि द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of अचलप्रतिष्ठ. In शाङ्करभाष्यम् “अचलतया प्रतिष्ठा स्थितिः यस्य तम्” अचलप्रतिष्ठम्. One can decipher this word अचलप्रतिष्ठ also as अचला प्रतिष्ठा यस्य सः अचलप्रतिष्ठः or अचलं प्रतिष्ठः इति अचलप्रतिष्ठः
    • The deciphering as अचलतया प्रतिष्ठा स्थितिः यस्य तम् imports an additional word स्थितिः. Hence there is some style of मध्यमपदलोप.  Actually both words प्रतिष्ठा and स्थितिः are from धातुः स्था. So why import an additional word ?
    • The deciphering as अचला प्रतिष्ठा यस्य सः अचलप्रतिष्ठः has the style of बहुव्रीहिः
    • The deciphering as अचलं प्रतिष्ठः इति अचलप्रतिष्ठः has the style of अव्ययीभावान्वितः कर्मधारयः Here प्रतिष्ठः is to be understood to be in the style of उपस्थः in रथोपस्थः (रथं उपस्थः इति रथोपस्थः) See श्लोकः 1-43.
    • अचलप्रतिष्ठम् = One who has attained undisturbable state.
  • समुद्रम् – समुद्रः इति पुँल्लिङ्गि नाम | तस्य द्वितीया विभक्तिः एकवचनं च |
    • समुद्र a. Sealed, bearing a seal, stamped; समुद्रो लेखः; समुद्रे नाप्नुयात् किंचिद्यदि तस्मान्न संहरेत् Ms.8.188. -द्रः 1 The sea, ocean.
  • There is a simile here and merits a comparative study between उपमानसर्वस्वम् and उपमेयसर्वस्वम्
उपमानाः यद्वत् आपः अचलप्रतिष्ठम् समुद्रम्   आपूर्यमाणम् प्रविशन्ति
उपमेयाः तद्वत् कामाः (अचलप्रतिष्ठम्) यम् (आपूर्यमाणम्) प्रविशन्ति
  • To make उपमेयसर्वस्वम् to match with उपमानसर्वस्वम्, one needs to presume अचलप्रतिष्ठम् and आपूर्यमाणम् to be implicit in उपमेयसर्वस्वम् also.
  • Just as waters keep flowing into the sea, but the inflows (from rivers) make no difference to the sea, because it is always in an undisturbable state, in the same way, for one, who has attained an undisturbable state, wishes may enter his mind, but would make no difference to him.

(2) सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति | कामकामी (शान्तिम्) न (आप्नोति) | – The word worth studying is कामकामी.

  • It is a compound word to be deciphered as कामानां कामी इति कामकामी (षष्ठी-तत्पुरुषः)
  • कामः [कम्-घञ्] 1 Wish, desire; संतानकामाय R.2.65, 3.67; oft. used with the inf. form; गन्तुकामः desirous to go; संगात्संजायते कामः Bg.2.62; Ms.2.94. -2 Object of desire; सर्वान् कामान् समश्नुते Ms.2.5; Bṛi. Up.1.3.28. Kaṭh. Up.1.25. -3 Affection, love. -4 Love or desire of sensual enjoyments, considered as one of the ends of life (पुरुषार्थ); cf. अर्थ and अर्थकाम.
  • कामी = कामः अस्य अस्ति or कामाः अस्य सन्ति इति कामी (प्रातिपदिकम् कामिन्)
    • धातुः कम् + कृत्प्रत्ययः घिनुण् = कामिन् | प्रत्ययः घिनुण् तच्छीलतद्धर्मतत्साधुकारिषु (पा. 3-2-134)
    • कम् 1, 1. Ā. (कामयते, कामित, चकमे-कामयाञ्चक्रे, कान्त) 1 To love, be enamoured of, be in love with; कन्ये कामयमानं मां न त्वं कामयसे कथम् Kāv.1.63 (an instance of ग्राम्यता); कलहंसको मन्दारिकां कामयते Māl.1. -2 To long for, wish, desire; न वीरसूशब्दमकामयेताम् R.14.4.; निष्कष्टुमर्थं चकमे कुबेरात् 5.26;4.48;1.53; Bk.14.82.
  • कामकामी = indulging only in desires.

(3) यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | – First, study of some interesting words.

  • (3-1) The word पुमान् is प्रथमा विभक्तिः एकवचनम् of पुंस्. We had पुंसः (षष्ठी विभक्तिः एकवचनम्) in ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः (2-62).
  • (3-2) निर्ममः – निर्गतः ममः यस्मात् सः (बहुव्रीहिः)
    • ममः = मम इति भावः | This is तद्धितम् भाववाचकं नाम from मम |
  • (3-3) निरहङ्कारः – अहं कारः इति भावः अहङ्कारः | Thought that I am the doer is अहङ्कारः ego | निर्गतः अहङ्कारः यस्मात् सः निरहङ्कारः (बहुव्रीहिः) | निरहङ्कारः = devoid of ego.
  • (3-4) निःस्पृहः – a. 1 Free from desire, not longing for. -2 Satisfied, content. -3 Indifferent; ननु वक्तृविशेषनिःस्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः Ki.2.5.
    • निःस्पृहस्य तृणं जगत्
    • नि + स्पृह् इति धातुः स्पृह् 10 U. (स्पृहयति-ते) To wish, long for, desire for, yearn, envy (with dat.); स्पृहयामि खलु दुर्ललितायास्मै Ś.7; तपःक्लेशायापि स्पृहयन्ति K.; न मैथिलेयः स्पृहयांबभूव भर्त्रे दिवो नाप्यलकेश्वराय R.16.42; Bh.2.45.
  • (3-5) निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः connote threefold mental discipline of being निर्ममः having no attachments निरहंकारः having no ego and निःस्पृहः having no desires.
  • (3-6) यः पुमान् सर्वान् कामान् विहाय निर्ममः निरहंकारः निःस्पृहः चरति सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति | = He, who gives up all desires and conducts himself having no attachments, having no ego and having no desires, attains (everlasting) peace.

(4) पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति) | एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति | अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति | – Study of specific words and deliberations

  • (4-1) ब्राह्मी = ब्रह्मणः इयम् इति ब्राह्मी | rather ब्रह्ममयी इति ब्राह्मी | or ब्रह्मज्ञानेन इयमिति ब्राह्मी |
    • ब्राह्मी स्थितिः = ब्रह्मावस्था = state of being one with the “genesis”, being knowledgeable and conscious of the fundamental element, of the fundamental reality.
    • I don’t think this can be truly put in the most correct words.
  • (4-2) निर्वाण p. p. 1 Blown or put out, extinguished (as a lamp or fire); निर्वाणवैरदहनाः प्रशमादरीणाम् Ve.1.7; Ku.2.23. -2 Lost, disappeared. -3 Dead, deceased. -4 Liberated from existence. -5 Set (as the sun). -6 Calmed, quieted. -7 Plunged. -णम् 1 Extinction; अपि निर्वाणमायाति नानलो याति शीतताम् H.1.131; शनैर्निर्वाणमाप्नोति निरिन्धन इवानलः Mb. -2 Vanishing from sight, dis- appearance. -3 Dissolution, death. -4 Final liberation or emancipation from matter and reunion with the Supreme Spirit, eternal bliss; निर्वाणं नाधिगच्छेयुर्जीवेयुः पशु- जीविकाम् Mb.3.31,26; निर्वाणमपि मन्ये$हमन्तरायं जयश्रियः Ki.11.69; R.12.1. -5 (With Buddhists) Absolute extinction or annihilation, complete extinction of individual or worldly existence. -6 Perfect and perpetual calm, repose; निर्वाणं समुपगमेन यच्छते ते (नमः) Ki.18.39. -7 Complete satisfaction or pleasure, supreme bliss, highest felicity; स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतो$धिगच्छति Bg.5.24; अये लब्धं नेत्रनिर्वाणम् Ś.3; M.3.1; Śi.4.23; V.3.21. -8 Cessation, desisting. -9 Vacuity. -1 Union, associa- tion, confluence. -11 The bathing of an elephant; as in अनिर्वाण R.1.71. -12 Instruction in sciences. -13 Finis, completion; प्राप्य संकल्पनिर्वाणं नातिप्रीतो$भ्यगात् पुरम् Bhāg.4.9.27.
    • धातुः निर्वा – निर्वा 2 P. 1 To blow. -2 To be cooled, be cool or assuaged (fig. also); वपुर्जलाद्रापवनैर्न निर्ववौ Śi.1.65; त्वयि दृष्ट एव तस्या निर्वाति मनो मनोभवज्वलितम् Subhāṣ. -3 To blow out, be extinguished, be extinct; निर्वाणदीपे किमु तैलदानम् Subhāṣ.; निर्वाणभूयिष्ठमथास्य वीर्यं संधुक्षयन्तीव वपुर्गुणेन Ku.3.52; Śi.14.85; Mu.3.28. -Caus. (निर्वापयति) 1 To blow or put out, extinguish, destroy, kill; शशाक निर्वापयितुं न वासवः R.3.58. -2 To cool, alleviate the heat of, act as a refrigerant; सखि अन्यादृश एव ते$द्य निर्वा- पयति शरीरस्पर्शः Māl.6; Ratn.3.11; R.19.56. -3 To gratify, soothe, comfort; निर्वाप्य प्रियसंदेशैः सीतामक्षवधोद्धतः R.12.63.
    • वा – I. 2 P. (वाति, वात or वान) 1 To blow; वाता वाता दिशि दिशि न वा सप्तधा सप्तभिन्नाः Ve.3.6; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः R.3.14; Me.44; Bk.7.1;8.61. -2 To go, move. -3 To strike, hurt, injure. -4 To emit an odour, be diffused. -5 To smell. -Caus. (वापयति-ते) 1 To cause to blow. -2 (वाजयति-ते) To shake. -With आ to blow; बद्धां बद्धां भित्तिशङ्काममुष्मिन्नावानावान्मातरिश्वा निहन्ति Ki.5.36; Bk. 14.97. -प्र, वि to blow; वायुर्विवाति हृदयानि हरन्नराणाम् Ṛs. 6.23. -II. 4 P. (वायति) 1 To be dried up, to dry. -2 To be extinguished. -III. 1 U. (वापयति-ते) 1 To go, move. -2 To be happy. -3 To worship, reverence.
  • (4-3) ऋच्छति – This form is related to different धातु-s
    • ऋ I. 1 P. [ऋच्छति, आर, आर्षीत्, अरिष्यति, ऋत; caus. अर्पयति; desid. अरिरिषति; अरार्यते reduplicative (अत्यर्थमृच्छति) cf. किमभीरुररार्यसे Bk.4.21.] 1 To go, move; अम्भच्छा- यामच्छामृच्छति Śi.4.44. यथाश्मानमृत्वा लोष्ठो विध्वंसेत Bṛi. Up.1.3.7. -2 To rise, tend towards. -II. 3 P. (इयर्ति, आरत्, ऋत Mostly used in the Veda.) 1 To go. -2 To move, shake. -3 To obtain, gain, acquire, reach, meet with. -4 To move, excite, raise (as voice, words &c.) वाचमियर्ति. -5 To display. -III. 5 P. (ऋणोति, ऋण) 1 To injure, hurt. -2 To attack. -Caus. (अर्पयति, आर्पिपत्, अर्पित) 1 To throw, cast, fling; fix or implant in; हृदि शल्यमर्पितम् R.8.87. -2 To put or place on, fix upon, direct or cast towards (as the eye &c.); वामत्रकोष्ठार्पितहेमवेत्रः Ku.3.41; Ś.6.5,17,3.26; R.17. 79; Ś.6.8; Bk.5.9; Ku.6.11; R.15.77; Bg.8.7, 12.14; करपल्लवार्पित Śi.9.54. -3 To place in, insert, give, set or place; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि R.9.74,78; चित्रार्पिताम् Ś.6.15 drawn in a picture; R.2.31; द्वारदेशे Amaru. 62; V.4.35; Mu.7.6; Bh.3.18; लोकोत्तरं चरितमर्पयति प्रतिष्ठाम् R. G. -4 To hand or make over; give to, give in charge of, consign, deliver; इति सूतस्याभरणान्यर्पयति Ś.1,4. 19; Bk.8.118; Y.2.65. -5To give up, sacrifice (as the inherent sense); अत्र कलिङ्गगङ्गाशब्दौ आत्मानमर्पयतः S. D.2. -6 To give back, restore; अर्पितप्रकृतिकान्तिभिर्मुखैः R.19.1; Bk.15.16; Amaru.94; Ms.8.191; Y.2. 169. -7To pierce through, perforate, penetrate.
    • ऋच्छ् 6 P. (ऋच्छति, आर्च्छीत्, आनर्च्छ, अर्च्छितुम्). 1 To become hard or stiff. -2 To go, move; -3 1 To fail in faculties.
    • The meaning “To go, move” is common to both ऋ 1 P. and ऋच्छ् 6 P.
  • (4-4) पार्थ एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः (भवति) | एनां प्राप्य न विमुह्यति | अन्तकाले अस्याम् स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् अपि ऋच्छति | = पार्थ This state is what has been detailed in previous verses. Having attained this state, one does not lose balance. Being in this state at the time of last breath, one may as well attain going/moving unto the ब्रह्मन्.

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o-

 

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verse 69)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ श्लोकः ६९)

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी |

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ||२-६९||

There is only one संधि ! पश्यतो मुनेः = पश्यतः मुनेः |

अन्वयः –

  1. या सर्वभूतानां निशा (भवति) तस्यां संयमी जागर्ति |
  2. यस्यां (सर्वाणि) भूतानि जाग्रति सा पश्यतः मुनेः निशा (भवति) |

अन्वेषणमभ्यासश्च –

(1) Most interesting word appeals to be निशा. Most commonly understood meaning of निशा is ‘night’. Apte’s dictionary gives quite some interesting insight.

  • (1-1) निशा [नितरां श्यति तनूकरोति व्यापारान् शोक Tv.] 1 Night या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी Bg.2.69. Note Tv is abbreviation for तारानाथवाचस्पत्यम्.
    • (1-1-1) Among other meanings of निशा – A collective name for the zodiacal signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Sagittarius, and Capricorn.
      • Why should collective name of these zodiacal signs मेषः, वृषभः, मिथुनः, कर्कः, धनुः मकरः have been निशा ?
      • Other signs सिंहः, कन्या, वृश्चिकः, तुला, कुम्भः मीनः should become another group.
      • In astrology zodiacal signs seem to be also grouped by elements they are related to – Fire: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Earth: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn Air: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius Water: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces
  • (1-2) In the phrase नितरां श्यति, नितरां is explanation of the prefix नि and श्यति is explanation of शा, since it is derived from धातुः शी 2 Ā. (शेते, शयित; pass. शय्यते; desid. (शिशयिषते) 1 To lie, lie down, recline, rest; इतश्च शरणार्थिनः शिखरिणां गणाः शेरते Bh.2.76. -2 To sleep (fig. also); किं निःशङ्कं शेषे शेषे वयसः समागतो मृत्युः । अथवा सुखं शयीथा निकटे जागर्ति जाह्नवी जननी Bv.4.3; Bh.3.79; Ku.5.12. -3 To rest, repose. -Caus. (शाययति-ते) -1 To cause to sleep or lie down; पार्श्वे शायय रावणम् Bk.8.83. -2 To allow to rest or repose.
  • (1-3) Apte’s dictionary also details निश् f. (This word is optionally substituted for निशा in all cases after acc. dual; it has no forms for the first five inflections). 1 Night.  
  • (1-4) Apte’s dictionary also details धातुः निश् 1 P. (नेशति) To lose oneself in abstract meditation, meditate upon.
  • (1-6) Extended meaning of निशा can be taken as state of being unaware .

(2) Opposite of being unaware is being aware, alert. For this there are two verbs जागर्ति and जाग्रति, present tense, singular and plural forms of धातुः जागृ

  • जागृ 2 P. (जागर्ति, जागरित) 1 To be awake, be watchful or attentive (fig. also); सो$पसर्पैर्जजागार यथाकालं स्वपन्नपि R.17.51; गुरौ षाङ्गुण्यचिन्तायामार्ये चार्ये च जाग्रति Mu.7.13; to sit up during the night; या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी Bg.2.69. -2 To be roused from sleep, awake. -3 To foresee, be provident.

(3) But what is it that a संयमी one who is restrained जागर्ति is aware or alert about, when सर्वभूतानां निशा (भवति) all others are unaware of or are oblivious to ?

  • And what is it that (सर्वाणि) भूतानि are aware of, when they जाग्रति ?

(4) Although I have made it as questions, the अन्वय has no questions. There we have two very affirmative statements. In his discourses Osho is said to have put these statements as “.. O Arjuna, what is a dark night for all beings, is wakefulness for those who have attained godliness. All those who are destructive, who live in ephemeral worldly happiness, call it wakefulness. But, for the wise man, who knows, it is a dark night. ..”

(5) Obviously the two concepts of जागृति wakefulness, and of निशा un-wakefulness are for common people related to being happy जागृति time to enjoy, otherwise, being not happy निशा.

(6) The wise remains संयमी in self-control in instances, which for common people are not instances of being happy. When common people are awake, enjoying, the wise, the मुनिः prefers to be oblivious of them, even when he is पश्यन् seeing.

(7) पश्यतः मुनेः is an interesting phrase. It is in the style of सच्छष्ठी, with षष्ठी विभक्ति of both the doer and his action. The action in सच्छष्ठी, here, the action पश्यतः i.e. दृष्टिः, दर्शनम् is simultaneous with the other action or state निशा.

(8) If the wise is either जाग्रति or पश्यन् that means he is always alert and equanimous. संत रामदास (१६०६ – १६८२) puts this very beautifully अखंड सावधान असावें | दुश्चित्त कदापि नसावें | अंतरीं असो द्यावें | समाधान || Be alert all the time. Let the mind be never disturbed. The inner self should be at peace.

(9) What गीता speaks of संयमी and मुनि being always alert, संत रामदास advocates, that yourself be that way. That is precisely the way to read and understand गीता. Place yourself in Arjuna’s position. Then every statement, that is told by श्रीकृष्णभगवान् is not just what He said to अर्जुन but it is in fact for you. That way, may it soak down into your own intellect. Then keep checking how good your own conduct conforms and whether it deviates. Keep controlling the conduct to eliminate deviations.

(10) That brings to mind an incident from सच्चरितम् of Sai Baba of Shirdi. A few Muslim ladies had come to have blessings of Sai Baba. Madhavrao Deshpande, sort of personal secretary of Sai Baba was there. Also Nanasaheb Chandorkar, who for Sai Baba, say, for श्रीकृष्णभगवान् was as good as अर्जुन. Being at the feet of Sai Baba the ladies lifted their veils. One lady’s beauty was beyond description. Sai Baba could assess what had happened to Nanasaheb, even without looking at him. After the ladies left Baba just said बनता, बनता, बनेल ! Literal meaning, “It will become by keeping on becoming.” What Sai Baba implied was “control on the mind will become, but only as it keeps becoming.” That beauty should have been realized as निशा by Nanasaheb and he should not have allowed his mind to be disturbed by it. Disturbance of the mind is that very subtle, right ? And then control of the mind संयम is so very challenging ! Be alert all the time !

(11) उत्तिष्ठत, जाग्रत, प्राप्यवरान्निबोधत (कठोपनिषत्)

  • उत्तिष्ठत Get up, Shake away all cloudings, all confusions, all negativities, what you have covered yourself with
  • जाग्रत awaken, be alert, stay alert
  • प्राप्यवरान्निबोधत know, cultivate and imbibe the right commands !

शुभमस्तु !!

-o-O-o-

 

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verses 64 to 68)

Studying Geetaa and Sanskrit together (Chapter 2 Verses 64 to 68)

गीतान्वेषणे (अध्यायः२ पञ्च श्लोकाः ६४-तः ६८-पर्यन्ताः)

I would like to discuss the five verses in two steps, verses 64 and 65 first and verses 66 to 68 next. The reason or logic will become clear as the discussion proceeds.

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् |

आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ||२-६४||

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते |

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ||२-६५||

पदच्छेदैः –

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैः चरन् |

आत्मवश्यैः विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति ||२-६४||

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिः अस्य उपजायते |

प्रसन्नचेतसः हि आशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ||२-६५||

अन्वयः –

  1. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः आत्मवश्यैः इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन् विधेयात्मा तु प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति |
  2. प्रसादे अस्य सर्वदुःखानां हानिः उपजायते |
  3. हि प्रसन्नचेतसः बुद्धिः आशु पर्यवतिष्ठते |

अन्वेषणम् (Deliberation) –

(1) In most books on GitA, one finds a positive tone in the interpretation of these Shlokas.

  • In a book GitA-Darshan based on discourses by Osho, the interpretation reads –
    • of shloka 64 as “.. An individual enjoys freedom, when his inner wisdom does not include attraction-aversion; he enjoys worldly objects, but he is not at the mercy of his own senses. That is to say, he rejoices, as he has attained inner wisdom. ..”
    • And for shloka 65 “.. In this clarity, there is absence of all suffering; and the individual, whose consciousness is blissful, swiftly and easily moves into a state of stillness. ..”
  • शाङ्करभाष्ये –
    • रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः (रागश्च द्वेषश्च रागद्वेषौ | तत्पुरःसरा हि इन्द्रियाणां प्रवृत्तिः स्वाभाविकी | तत्र यो मुमुक्षुः भवति स ताभ्यां वियुक्तैः श्रोत्रादिभिः) इन्द्रियैः विषयान् (अवर्जनीयान्) चरन् (उपलभमाना) आत्मवश्यैः (आत्मनो वश्यानि, वशीभूतानि, तैः आत्मवश्यैः) विधेयात्मा (इच्छातो विधेयः आत्मा अन्तःकरणं यस्य सः अयं) प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति | (प्रसादः प्रसन्नता स्वास्थ्यम्)
    • प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां (आध्यात्मकादीनां) हानिः (विनाशः) अस्य (यतेः) उपजायते | (किं च) प्रसन्नचेतसः (स्वस्थान्तःकरणस्य) हि (यस्मात्) आशु (शीघ्रं) बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते | (आकाशम् इव, परि, समन्तात्, अवतिष्ठते, आत्मस्वरूपेण एव निश्चलीभवति इत्यर्थः)

(2) I am not convinced of these interpretations, primarily because they run contrary to the clear statement in 18-38, विष्येन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् | परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ||

  • Here it is clearly stated that any संयोग of विषय and इन्द्रिय is विषम्

(3) There is an optional अन्वयः possible –

  1. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः आत्मवश्यैः इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन् विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् तु अधिगच्छति |
    1. The word तु is shifted nearer to अधिगच्छति
    2. The part वियुक्त in the word रागद्वेषवियुक्तैः can also be interpreted as with राग and द्वेष, instead of the other interpretations as devoid of राग and द्वेष
    3. The word आत्मवश्यैः can also be translated as ‘according to one’s own will’.
  2. (तथापि) अस्य सर्वदुःखानां प्रसादे हानिः उपजायते |
    1. The word (तथापि) is added, just to reinforce shift of तु.
    2. Sequence of सर्वदुःखानां and प्रसादे is interchanged. By that instead of सर्वदुःखानां हानिः it becomes प्रसादे हानिः.
  3. हि प्रसन्नचेतसः बुद्धिः आशु पर्यवतिष्ठते |
    1. I would interpret पर्यवतिष्ठते to mean “becomes perverse.’ Once mind senses pleasure, प्रसन्नचेतसः, by indulgence of इन्द्रिय-s with विषय-s, (इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन्) the effect anytime is only poisonous परिणामे विषमिव
    2. For deriving the meaning of पर्यवतिष्ठते it becomes interesting to also take note of the prefixes परि and अव. पर्यवस्था is a state, an uncertain state, like that of a tossed up coin, whichever way it may settle ‘down’ अव after ‘spinning’ परि.
    3. धातुः स्था in पर्यवतिष्ठते is usually परस्मैपदी. Here, पर्यवतिष्ठते is आत्मनेपदी. Is it that an unusual form is employed to suggest an unusual meaning ?

(4) In the previous two verses 62 and 63, the psychological analysis mentioned a step कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते. Intuitively, I had in my mind an enquiry, “What if कामात् क्रोधः न अभिजायते ?” Converse of क्रोधः अभिजायते is प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति. To my mind that is precisely what is discussed here. And the mention प्रसादे हानिः matches so well not only with 18-38, but बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते intellect becomes perverse. This interpretation gives a good continuity with further verses –

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना |

न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ||२-६६||

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते |

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ||२-६७||

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६८||

पदच्छेदैः –

न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य न च अयुक्तस्य भावना |

न च अभावयतः शान्तिः अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ||२-६६||

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यत् मनः अनुविधीयते |

तत् अस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुः नावम् इव अम्भसि ||२-६७||

तस्मात् यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः |

इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२-६८||

अन्वयाः –

  1. अयुक्तस्य बुद्धिः न अस्ति अयुक्तस्य भावना च न (अस्ति) |
  2. अभावयतः च शान्तिः न (अस्ति) |
  3. अशान्तस्य सुखम् कुतः (अस्ति ?)
  4. हि इन्द्रियाणां चरतां मनः यत् अनुविधीयते
    1. तत् अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति
    2. अम्भसि वायुः नावम् (हरति) इव |
  5. तस्मात्, महाबाहो, यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता |

अन्वेषणम् (Deliberation) –

(5) Verses 62 and 63 had a negative tone. Verses 66 and 67 also have a negative tone. To interpret only the in-between verses 64 and 65 with positive tone, does not make continuity. The more I think of it, the more I feel, that my interpretation is fair.

(6) In fact continuity all through from 62 to 67 smoothly leads to verse # 68 यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता. Continuity is very much obvious in the starting word तस्मात् of verse # 68.

(7) The second line of 2-68 is ditto repeat of the second line of 2-58. There are only a couple of lines in GitA, which are duplicated at two different places.

  • One such line is इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता duplicated in 2-58 and in 2-68, second line at both places.
  • Another line is श्रेयान् स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् duplicated in 3-35 and 18-47, first line at both places.

(8) If we can take it that the lines, which are duplicated are that important, the line इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता is that important, that the discussion should lead to that. I contend that my interpretation does that.

शुभमस्तु !

-o-O-o-